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      EXPOSICIÓN OCUPACIONAL AL COVID-19 EN TRABAJADORES SANITARIOS DE AMÉRICA LATINA, MAYO 2020 Translated title: OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO COVID-19 IN HEALTHCARE WORKERS FROM LATIN AMERICA, MAY 2020

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          Abstract

          Introducción. La enfermedad del coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) es una enfermedad infecciosa respiratoria aguda causada por el virus SARS-Cov-2, que no solo representa un gran desafío, sino que está sentando un precedente para la comunidad médica. Se sugiere que todo el personal que esté expuesto a riesgos laborales, específicamente riesgo biológico, utilice los equipos de protección personal necesarios proporcionados por la institución o empresa para la que labora. Los trabajadores con alto riesgo de infección pueden ser estigmatizados y discriminados, lo que lleva a su exclusión de la comunidad y su mayor exposición a la violencia y el acoso. Objetivo. Analizar la exposición laboral al SARS-CoV-2 de los colaboradores de salud en Latinoamérica en mayo 2020. Métodos y materiales. Estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo, transversal; participó una muestra no probabilística de 713 voluntarios. Se aplicó un cuestionario en línea de 30 preguntas cerradas. El análisis de estadísticos se realizó mediante Excel 2019, utilizando análisis de frecuencia y mediciones de tendencia central. Se consideraron las recomendaciones de bioética de Helsinki. Resultados y discusión. Participaron trabajadores sanitarios de 13 países hispanohablantes de América Latina, de 7 profesiones del sector salud. Se detallaron los factores de riesgo personales, laborales-institucionales y sus repercusiones en el personal. Conclusiones. Además de proveer el equipo y medidas de bioseguridad necesarias, es fundamental que las instituciones adopten nuevas políticas conformadas en conjunto para que se asegure la protección integral (a su vez psicológica y emocional) de los trabajadores.

          Translated abstract

          Introduction. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by the SARS-Cov-2 virus, which not only represents a great challenge, but is setting a precedent for the medical community. In this situation, it is suggested that all personnel who are exposed to occupational risks - specifically biological risk - will use the necessary personal and collective protection equipment provided by the institution or company for which they work. Workers in areas and jobs at high risk of infection can be stigmatized and discriminated, leading to their exclusion from the community and their increased exposure to violence and harassment. Objective. Analyze the occupational exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in health personnel in Latin America in May, 2020. Methods and materials. A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out; a non-probabilistic sample of 713 volunteers participated. An online questionnaire of 30 closed questions was applied. Statistical analysis was performed using Excel 2019, using frequency analysis and central tendency measurements. The Helsinki bioethics recommendations were considered. Results and discussion. Health workers from 13 Spanish-speaking Latin American countries, from 7 professions in the health sector, participated. The personal and labor/institutional risk factors and repercussions on the personnel were detailed. Conclusions. Besides providing the necessary equipment and safety measures and protocols to the health workforce, it is fundamental that institutions adopt new collaborative policies that ensure the holistic protection (including psychological and emotional) of their workers.

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          Most cited references10

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          Presumed Asymptomatic Carrier Transmission of COVID-19

          This study describes possible transmission of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from an asymptomatic Wuhan resident to 5 family members in Anyang, a Chinese city in the neighboring province of Hubei.
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            Safety Recommendations for Evaluation and Surgery of the Head and Neck During the COVID-19 Pandemic

            The rapidly expanding novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has challenged the medical community to an unprecedented degree. Physicians and health care workers are at added risk of exposure and infection during the course of patient care. Because of the rapid spread of this disease through respiratory droplets, health care workers who come in close contact with the upper aerodigestive tract during diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, such as otolaryngologists-head and neck surgeons, are particularly at risk. A set of safety recommendations was created based on a review of the literature and communications with physicians with firsthand knowledge of safety procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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              COVID-19 – what should anaethesiologists and intensivists know about it?

              Over the past three months, the world has faced an unprecedented health hazard. The World Health Organization has announced a pandemic infection with an unknown species of coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2. Spreading mainly through the droplet route, the virus causes mild symptoms in the majority of cases, the most common being: fever (80%), dry cough (56%), fatigue (22%) and muscle pain (7%); less common symptoms include a sore throat, a runny nose, diarrhea, hemoptysis and chills. A life-threatening complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection is an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which occurs more often in older adults, those with immune disorders and co-morbidities. Severe forms of the infection, being an indication for treatment in the intensive care unit, comprise acute lung inflammation, ARDS, sepsis and septic shock. The article presents basic information about etiology, pathogenesis and diagnostics (with particular emphasis on the importance of tomocomputer imaging), clinical picture, treatment and prevention of the infection. It goes on to emphasize the specific risks of providing anesthesiology and intensive care services. Due to the fact that effective causal treatment is not yet available and the number of infections and deaths increases day by day, infection prevention and strict adherence to recommendations of infection control organizations remain the basis for fighting the virus.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rccm
                Revista Científica Ciencia Médica
                Rev Cient Cienc Méd
                Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Mayor de San Simón. (Cochabamba, Cochabamba, Bolivia )
                2077-3323
                2220-2234
                2020
                : 23
                : 2
                : 214-220
                Affiliations
                [01] Tegucigalpa orgnameUniversidad de Honduras (UNAH) orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Médicas Honduras flaviomedina014@ 123456hotmail.com
                [02] Toluca orgnameInstituto Mexicano del Seguro Social México
                Article
                S1817-74332020000200012 S1817-7433(20)02300200012
                f09a1f41-b3d4-4bd1-bacd-c2da8791ae8e

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 02 December 2020
                : 03 January 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 11, Pages: 7
                Product

                SciELO Bolivia

                Categories
                ARTÍCULOS ORIGINALES

                Infecciones por Coronavirus,Coronavirus Infections,Containment of Biohazards,2019-nCoV,Occupational Exposure,Health Personnel,Contención de Riesgos Biológicos,Exposición Profesional,Personal de Salud

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