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      Interaction of Prenatal Exposure to Cigarettes and MAOA Genotype in Pathways to Youth Antisocial Behavior

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          Abstract

          Genetic susceptibility to antisocial behavior may increase fetal sensitivity to prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke. Testing putative Gene × Exposure mechanisms requires precise measurement of exposure and outcomes. We tested whether a functional polymorphism in the gene encoding the enzyme monoamine oxidase A ( MAOA) interacts with exposure to predict pathways to adolescent antisocial behavior. We assessed both clinical and information-processing outcomes. 176 adolescents and their mothers participated in a follow-up of a pregnancy cohort with well-characterized exposure. A sex-specific pattern of gene × exposure interaction was detected. Exposed boys with the low activity MAOA 5’ untranslated region variable number of tandem repeats (uVNTR) genotype were at increased risk for Conduct Disorder (CD) symptoms. In contrast, exposed girls with the high activity MAOA uVNTR genotype were at increased risk for both CD symptoms and hostile attribution bias on a face-processing task. There was no evidence of a gene-environment correlation (rGE). Findings suggest that the MAOA uVNTR genotype, prenatal exposure to cigarettes, and sex interact to predict antisocial behavior and related information-processing patterns. Future research to replicate and extend these findings may focus on elucidating how gene × exposure interactions may shape behavior via associated changes in brain function.

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          Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children.

          We studied a large sample of male children from birth to adulthood to determine why some children who are maltreated grow up to develop antisocial behavior, whereas others do not. A functional polymorphism in the gene encoding the neurotransmitter-metabolizing enzyme monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) was found to moderate the effect of maltreatment. Maltreated children with a genotype conferring high levels of MAOA expression were less likely to develop antisocial problems. These findings may partly explain why not all victims of maltreatment grow up to victimize others, and they provide epidemiological evidence that genotypes can moderate children's sensitivity to environmental insults.
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            NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (NIMH DISC-IV): description, differences from previous versions, and reliability of some common diagnoses.

            To describe the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (NIMH DISC-IV) and how it differs from earlier versions of the interview. The NIMH DISC-IV is a highly structured diagnostic interview, designed to assess more than 30 psychiatric disorders occurring in children and adolescents, and can be administered by "lay" interviewers after a minimal training period. The interview is available in both English and Spanish versions. An editorial board was established in 1992 to guide DISC development and ensure that a standard version of the instrument is maintained. Preliminary reliability and acceptability results of the NIMH DISC-IV in a clinical sample of 84 parents and 82 children (aged 9-17 years) drawn from outpatient child and adolescent psychiatric clinics at 3 sites are presented. Results of the previous version in a community sample are reviewed. Despite its greater length and complexity, the NIMH DISC-IV compares favorably with earlier versions. Alternative versions of the interview are in development (the Present State DISC, the Teacher DISC, the Quick DISC, the Voice DISC). The NIMH DISC is an acceptable, inexpensive, and convenient instrument for ascertaining a comprehensive range of child and adolescent diagnoses.
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              Biochemical verification of tobacco use and cessation.

                (2002)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                9607835
                20545
                Mol Psychiatry
                Molecular psychiatry
                1359-4184
                1476-5578
                20 February 2009
                3 March 2009
                September 2010
                1 March 2011
                : 15
                : 9
                : 928-937
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute for Juvenile Research, Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60608, USA
                [2 ]Department of Health Studies, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL., 60637, USA
                [3 ]Laboratory of Affective & Developmental Neurosciences, NIMH Intramural Research Program, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA
                [4 ]Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, YO10 5DD, England
                [5 ]Section of Genetic Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL., 60637, USA
                [6 ]Channing Laboratory, Harvard University Medical School, Boston, Mass., 02115, USA
                Author notes
                [7 ]Corresponding author: Lauren S. Wakschlag, PhD, IJR, 1747 W. Roosevelt Road, MC 747, Chicago, Il, 60608, email: lwakschlag@ 123456psych.uic.edu , phone: 312-996-9369, fax: 312-355-3634
                Article
                nihpa92974
                10.1038/mp.2009.22
                2905677
                19255579
                Funding
                Funded by: National Institute on Drug Abuse : NIDA
                Funded by: National Institute of Mental Health : NIMH
                Award ID: R01 DA015223-06 ||DA
                Funded by: National Institute on Drug Abuse : NIDA
                Funded by: National Institute of Mental Health : NIMH
                Award ID: R01 DA015223-05 ||DA
                Funded by: National Institute on Drug Abuse : NIDA
                Funded by: National Institute of Mental Health : NIMH
                Award ID: R01 DA015223-04S1 ||DA
                Funded by: National Institute on Drug Abuse : NIDA
                Funded by: National Institute of Mental Health : NIMH
                Award ID: R01 DA015223-04 ||DA
                Funded by: National Institute on Drug Abuse : NIDA
                Funded by: National Institute of Mental Health : NIMH
                Award ID: R01 DA015223-03 ||DA
                Funded by: National Institute on Drug Abuse : NIDA
                Funded by: National Institute of Mental Health : NIMH
                Award ID: R01 DA015223-02 ||DA
                Funded by: National Institute on Drug Abuse : NIDA
                Funded by: National Institute of Mental Health : NIMH
                Award ID: R01 DA015223-01A1 ||DA
                Funded by: National Institute on Drug Abuse : NIDA
                Funded by: National Institute of Mental Health : NIMH
                Award ID: ZIA MH002782-08 ||MH
                Funded by: National Institute on Drug Abuse : NIDA
                Funded by: National Institute of Mental Health : NIMH
                Award ID: ZIA MH002781-08 ||MH
                Funded by: National Institute on Drug Abuse : NIDA
                Funded by: National Institute of Mental Health : NIMH
                Award ID: ZIA MH002780-08 ||MH
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