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      Comparison of postoperative coagulation profiles and outcome for sugammadex versus pyridostigmine in 992 living donors after living-donor hepatectomy

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          Donor safety is the major concern in living donor liver transplantation, although hepatic resection may be associated with postoperative coagulopathy. Recently, the use of sugammadex has been gradually increased, but sugammadex is known to prolong prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). We compared the postoperative coagulation profiles and outcomes of sugammadex versus pyridostigmine group in donors receiving living donor hepatectomy.

          Consecutive donor hepatectomy performed between September 2013 and August 2016 was retrospectively analyzed. For reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade, donors received sugammadex 4 mg/kg or pyridostigmine 0.25 mg/kg. The primary end-points were laboratory findings (PT, aPTT, hemoglobin, platelet count) and clinically evaluated postoperative bleeding (relaparotomy for bleeding, cumulative volume collected in drains). Secondary outcomes were anesthesia time, postoperative hospital day.

          Of 992 donors, 383 treated with sugammadex and 609 treated with pyridostigmine for the reversal of neuromuscular blockade. There were no significant differences between both groups for drop in hemoglobin and platelet, prolongation in PT, aPTT, and the amount of 24-h drain volume. Bleeding events within 24 h were reported in 2 (0.3%) for pyridostigmine group and 0 (0%) for sugammadex group ( P = .262). Anesthesia time was significantly longer in pyridostigmine group than that in sugammadex group (438.8 ± 71.4 vs. 421.3 ± 62.3, P < .001). Postoperative hospital stay was significantly longer in pyridostigmine group than that in sugammadex group ( P = .002).

          Sugammadex 4 mg/kg was not associated with increased bleeding tendency, but associated with reduced anesthesia time and hospital stay. Therefore, sugammadex may be safely used and will decrease morbidity in donor undergoing living-donor hepatectomy.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Impact of anesthesia management characteristics on severe morbidity and mortality.

          Quantitative estimates of how anesthesia management impacts perioperative morbidity and mortality are limited. The authors performed a study to identify risk factors related to anesthesia management for 24-h postoperative severe morbidity and mortality. A case-control study was performed of all patients undergoing anesthesia (1995-1997). Cases were patients who either remained comatose or died during or within 24 h of undergoing anesthesia. Controls were patients who neither remained comatose nor died during or within 24 hours of undergoing anesthesia. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire, the anesthesia and recovery form. Odds ratios were calculated for risk factors, adjusted for confounders. The cohort comprised 869,483 patients; 807 cases and 883 controls were analyzed. The incidence of 24-h postoperative death was 8.8 (95% confidence interval, 8.2-9.5) per 10,000 anesthetics. The incidence of coma was 0.5 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-0.6). Anesthesia management factors that were statistically significantly associated with a decreased risk were: equipment check with protocol and checklist (odds ratio, 0.64), documentation of the equipment check (odds ratio, 0.61), a directly available anesthesiologist (odds ratio, 0.46), no change of anesthesiologist during anesthesia (odds ratio, 0.44), presence of a full-time working anesthetic nurse (odds ratio, 0.41), two persons present at emergence (odds ratio, 0.69), reversal of anesthesia (for muscle relaxants and the combination of muscle relaxants and opiates; odds ratios, 0.10 and 0.29, respectively), and postoperative pain medication as opposed to no pain medication, particularly if administered epidurally or intramuscularly as opposed to intravenously. Mortality after surgery is substantial and an association was established between perioperative coma and death and anesthesia management factors like intraoperative presence of anesthesia personnel, administration of drugs intraoperatively and postoperatively, and characteristics of delivered intraoperative and postoperative anesthetic care.
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            Effects of sugammadex on incidence of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade: a randomized, controlled study.

            This study aimed to investigate whether reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex reduced the incidence of residual blockade and facilitated operating room discharge readiness.
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              Lessons learned from 1,000 living donor liver transplantations in a single center: how to make living donations safe.

              Serious complications have occurred in a considerable proportion of living donors of liver transplants, but data from a single high-volume center has rarely been available. We analyzed the medical records of donors and recipients of the first 1,000 living donor liver transplants, performed at Asan Medical Center from December 1994 to June 2005, with a focus on donor safety. There were 107 pediatric and 893 adult transplants. The most common diagnoses were biliary atresia in pediatric recipients (63%) and hepatitis B-associated liver cirrhosis (80%) in adult recipients. Right lobe donors were strictly selected based on liver resection rate and steatosis. From 1,162 living donors, 588 right lobes, 6 extended right lobes, 7 right posterior segments, 464 left lobes, and 107 left lateral segments were obtained. Of these, 837 grafts were implanted singly, whereas 325, along with 1 cadaveric split graft, were implanted as dual grafts into 163 recipients. The 5-yr survival rates were 84.8% in pediatric recipients and 83.2% in adult recipients. There was no donor mortality, but 3.2% of donors experienced major complications. Until the end of 2001, the major donor complication rate was 6.7%, with most occurring in right liver donors. Since 2002, liver resection exceeding 65% of whole liver volume were avoided except for young donors with no hepatic steatosis, and the donor complication rate has been reduced to 1.3%. In conclusion, a majority of major living donor complications appear to be avoidable through the strict selection of living donor and graft type, intensive postoperative surveillance, and timely feedback of surgical techniques. Selection of right lobe graft should be very prudently considered if the donor right liver appears to be larger than 65% of the whole liver volume.

                Author and article information

                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Wolters Kluwer Health
                March 2018
                16 March 2018
                : 97
                : 11
                [a ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine
                [b ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
                Author notes
                []Correspondence: Sung-Hoon Kim, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Pungnap 2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736, Korea (e-mail: shkimans@ 123456amc.seoul.kr ).
                MD-D-16-06383 00129
                Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0

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