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      Longitudinal Study of the Maternal Insulin-Like Growth Factor System before, during and after Pregnancy in Relation to Fetal and Infant Weight

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          Abstract

          Background: The maternal insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is considered to be involved in fetal growth regulation. However, available data linking this system to fetal growth are contradictory and incomplete. Aims: To measure components of the IGF system before, during and after pregnancy in healthy women and to relate these results, and their changes during pregnancy, to fetal weight (gestational week 31) and birth weight. Methods: Serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-1, IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-3 protease activity were assessed in 23 women before conception, at weeks 8, 14, 20, 32 and 35 of pregnancy and 2 weeks postpartum. The data were analyzed using simple and multiple linear regression. Results: One third of the variability in fetal weight was explained by IGF-I in combination with IGFBP-3 protease activity, both assessed at gestational week 32 (p = 0.013). Birth weight was negatively correlated (r = –0.43 to –0.59) with IGFBP-1 at gestational week 20 (p = 0.041), 32 (p = 0.012) and 35 (p = 0.003). Conclusion: We propose there is a finely tuned balance among the components of the IGF system, providing a means for fetal growth regulation.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Insulin-like growth factors and their binding proteins: biological actions

           J Jones (1995)
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            Intrauterine growth restriction in humans is associated with abnormalities in placental insulin-like growth factor signaling.

            The IGFs promote the growth and development of the feto-placental unit during gestation, and impairment of their placental actions may result in altered intrauterine growth of the fetus. In this study, proteins involved in IGF signaling were investigated in human placentas from pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) compared with those from normal pregnancies. IUGR placentas exhibited 33% reduction in the protein content of IGF-I receptors, but no changes in insulin receptor protein levels. In addition, insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) protein levels were reduced in IUGR placentas, with no changes in IRS-1 or Shc protein content, and this was associated with a parallel decrease in IRS-2-associated phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase. Akt protein expression was also reduced in IUGR, whereas phosphorylation of Akt and its substrate glycogen synthase kinase-3 was unchanged. Finally, in IUGR placentas there was impaired activation of multiple members of the MAPK family, because phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase was reduced 70%. In conclusion, human placentas from pregnancies complicated by IUGR are characterized by decreased IGF-I receptor content, selective impairment of the IRS-2/ phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase pathway, and reduced p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation. The observed abnormalities in IGF-I signaling may contribute to altered fetal growth and development in human IUGR.
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              Regulation of Maternal Metabolism by Pituitary and Placental Hormones: Roles in Fetal Development and Metabolic Programming

               M Freemark (2006)
              This review outlines the regulation of maternal metabolism by hormones, cytokines and growth factors, highlighting recent studies that implicate disordered somatolactogen signalling in the pathogenesis of perinatal growth failure and the development of the metabolic syndrome.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2008
                January 2008
                05 December 2007
                : 69
                : 2
                : 99-106
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of Nutrition, Linköping University, Linköping, and bUnit for Endocrinology and Diabetes, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Hospital M1:02, Stockholm, Sweden
                Article
                111813 Horm Res 2008;69:99–106
                10.1159/000111813
                18059090
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, References: 28, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Paper

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