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      Direct Self-Injurious Behavior (D-SIB) and Life Events among Vocational School and High School Students


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          Although several studies have recently assessed direct self-injurious behavior (D-SIB) among adolescents, it is still understudied in adolescents attending vocational schools: an educational setting generally associated with lower socioeconomic status. After extending the “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” (SEYLE) project to a vocational school population, we examined their D-SIB and life event characteristics compared to the high school population. SEYLE’s Hungarian randomly selected high school sample ( N = 995) was completed with a randomly selected vocational school sample ( N = 140) in Budapest, Hungary. Participants aged 14–17 years completed the SEYLE project’s self-administered questionnaires. D-SIB lifetime prevalence was significantly higher (29.4%) in the vocational school group compared to the high school group (17.2%) (Χ 2(1) = 12.231, p< 0.001). D-SIB was associated with suicidal ideation in the vocational school group. Different life events were more frequent in the high school than in the vocational school group, and associations between D-SIB and life events differed in the vocational school group compared to the high school group. In conclusion, vocational school students are a vulnerable population with a higher prevalence of D-SIB compared to high school students. Life events and their association with D-SIB also differ in vocational school students compared to high school students. Taking all these into account might contribute to prevention/intervention designed for this population.

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          People have engaged in self-injury-defined as direct and deliberate bodily harm in the absence of suicidal intent-for thousands of years; however, systematic research on this behavior has been lacking. Recent theoretical and empirical work on self-injury has significantly advanced the understanding of this perplexing behavior. Self-injury is most prevalent among adolescents and young adults, typically involves cutting or carving the skin, and has a consistent presentation cross-nationally. Behavioral, physiological, and self-report data suggest that the behavior serves both an intrapersonal function (i.e., decreases aversive affective/cognitive states or increases desired states) and an interpersonal function (i.e., increases social support or removes undesired social demands). There currently are no evidence-based psychological or pharmacological treatments for self-injury. This review presents an integrated theoretical model of the development and maintenance of self-injury that synthesizes prior empirical findings and proposes several testable hypotheses for future research.
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            Non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents: diagnostic correlates and relation to suicide attempts.

            Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent behavioral problem, yet many fundamental aspects of NSSI remain unknown. This case series study reports on the diagnostic correlates of adolescents with a recent history of NSSI and examines the relation between NSSI and suicide attempts. Data are from clinical interviews with 89 adolescents admitted to an adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit who engaged in NSSI in the previous 12 months. Results revealed that 87.6% of adolescents engaging in NSSI met criteria for a DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis (M=3.0, S.D.=2.2, range=0 to 8 diagnoses), including externalizing (62.9%), internalizing (51.7%), and substance use (59.6%) disorders. Most adolescents assessed also met criteria for an Axis II personality disorder (67.3%). Overall, 70% of adolescents engaging in NSSI reported a lifetime suicide attempt and 55% reported multiple attempts. Characteristics of NSSI associated with making suicide attempts included a longer history of NSSI, use of a greater number of methods, and absence of physical pain during NSSI. These findings demonstrate the diagnostic heterogeneity of adolescents engaging in NSSI, highlight the significant overlap between NSSI and suicide attempts, and provide a point of departure for future research aimed at elucidating the relations between non-suicidal and suicidal self-injury.
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              International prevalence of adolescent non-suicidal self-injury and deliberate self-harm

              Background The behaviours of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and deliberate self-harm (DSH) are prevalent among adolescents, and an increase of rates in recent years has been postulated. There is a lack of studies to support this postulation, and comparing prevalence across studies and nations is complicated due to substantial differences in the methodology and nomenclature of existing research. Methods We conducted a systematic review of current (2005 - 2011) empirical studies reporting on the prevalence of NSSI and DSH in adolescent samples across the globe. Results Fifty-two studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria were obtained for analysis. No statistically significant differences were found between NSSI (18.0% SD = 7.3) and DSH (16.1% SD = 11.6) studies. Assessment using single item questions led to lower prevalence rates than assessment with specific behaviour checklists. Mean prevalence rates have not increased in the past five years, suggesting stabilization. Conclusion NSSI and DSH have a comparable prevalence in studies with adolescents from different countries. The field would benefit from adopting a common approach to assessment to aide cross-cultural study and comparisons.

                Author and article information

                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                24 May 2018
                June 2018
                : 15
                : 6
                [1 ]Doctoral School of Psychology, Eotvos Lorand University, 1075 Budapest, Hungary; szentivanyi.dora@ 123456ppk.elte.hu (D.S.); szabina.velo@ 123456gmail.com (S.V.)
                [2 ]Institute of Psychology, Eotvos Lorand University, 1075 Budapest, Hungary; gyorido@ 123456gmail.com (D.G.); kereszteny.agnes@ 123456ppk.elte.hu (A.K.); balazs.judit@ 123456ppk.elte.hu (J.B.)
                [3 ]Pedagogical Services, Budapest District 12, 1126 Budapest, Hungary; maripen7@ 123456gmail.com
                [4 ]Vadaskert Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Hospital and Outpatient Clinic, 1021 Budapest, Hungary; gyongyver.dallos@ 123456gmail.com (G.F.-D.); gadorosju@ 123456gmail.com (J.G.); meszaros.gergely.83@ 123456gmail.com (G.M.)
                [5 ]West Hertfordshire Specialist CAMHS St Albans Clinic, AL3 5TL St Albans, UK; lucafarkas@ 123456gmail.com
                [6 ]Semmelweis University, Mental Health Sciences Doctoral School, 1083 Budapest, Hungary
                [7 ]Department of Health Sciences, University of Molise, 86100 Molise, Italy; marco.sarchiapone@ 123456me.com (M.S.); vladimir.carli@ 123456me.com (V.C.)
                [8 ]Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden; danuta.wasserman@ 123456ki.se
                [9 ]Global Psychiatric Epidemiology, Columbia University-New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY 10032, USA; camillawasserman@ 123456gmail.com
                [10 ]Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA; christina.hoven@ 123456nyspi.columbia.edu
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: horvath.lili@ 123456ppk.elte.hu ; Tel.: +36-1-461-4500 (ext. 5619)
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


                Public health
                direct self-injurious behavior,d-sib,self-injury,self-harm,life events,adolescents,seyle,depression,anxiety disorders,suicidal behavior,suicide prevention


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