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      Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome: from basic to clinics

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          Abstract

          The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has occurred in China and around the world. SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with severe pneumonia rapidly develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and die of multiple organ failure. Despite advances in supportive care approaches, ARDS is still associated with high mortality and morbidity. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy may be an potential alternative strategy for treating ARDS by targeting the various pathophysiological events of ARDS. By releasing a variety of paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles, MSC can exert anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-microbial, and pro-angiogenic effects, promote bacterial and alveolar fluid clearance, disrupt the pulmonary endothelial and epithelial cell damage, eventually avoiding the lung and distal organ injuries to rescue patients with ARDS. An increasing number of experimental animal studies and early clinical studies verify the safety and efficacy of MSC therapy in ARDS. Since low cell engraftment and survival in lung limit MSC therapeutic potentials, several strategies have been developed to enhance their engraftment in the lung and their intrinsic, therapeutic properties. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the mechanisms and optimization of MSC therapy in ARDS and highlighted the potentials and possible barriers of MSC therapy for COVID-19 patients with ARDS.

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          Most cited references 66

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          The role of stromal stem cells in tissue regeneration and wound repair.

          The process of wound repair in epithelium-lined organs of mammals is complex and is influenced by numerous secreted factors including cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. However, the cellular organizers of this process are still not understood. Recent studies of tissue regeneration in organisms with simpler development have uncovered details about the activity of stem cells in the mesenchyme (the blastema) during this process. These blastemal cells are well positioned to interpret cues from the environment and to execute decisions about the direction of wound repair. In mammalian wounds, stromal stem cells appear to be positioned to perform functions similar to those of blastemal cells, including communication with both the overlying epithelium and the inflammatory cells in the mesenchyme.
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            Health security capacities in the context of COVID-19 outbreak: an analysis of International Health Regulations annual report data from 182 countries

            Summary Background Public health measures to prevent, detect, and respond to events are essential to control public health risks, including infectious disease outbreaks, as highlighted in the International Health Regulations (IHR). In light of the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), we aimed to review existing health security capacities against public health risks and events. Methods We used 18 indicators from the IHR State Party Annual Reporting (SPAR) tool and associated data from national SPAR reports to develop five indices: (1) prevent, (2) detect, (3) respond, (4) enabling function, and (5) operational readiness. We used SPAR 2018 data for all of the indicators and categorised countries into five levels across the indices, in which level 1 indicated the lowest level of national capacity and level 5 the highest. We also analysed data at the regional level (using the six geographical WHO regions). Findings Of 182 countries, 52 (28%) had prevent capacities at levels 1 or 2, and 60 (33%) had response capacities at levels 1 or 2. 81 (45%) countries had prevent capacities and 78 (43%) had response capacities at levels 4 or 5, indicating that these countries were operationally ready. 138 (76%) countries scored more highly in the detect index than in the other indices. 44 (24%) countries did not have an effective enabling function for public health risks and events, including infectious disease outbreaks (7 [4%] at level 1 and 37 [20%] at level 2). 102 (56%) countries had level 4 or level 5 enabling function capacities in place. 32 (18%) countries had low readiness (2 [1%] at level 1 and 30 [17%] at level 2), and 104 (57%) countries were operationally ready to prevent, detect, and control an outbreak of a novel infectious disease (66 [36%] at level 4 and 38 [21%] at level 5). Interpretation Countries vary widely in terms of their capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to outbreaks. Half of all countries analysed have strong operational readiness capacities in place, which suggests that an effective response to potential health emergencies could be enabled, including to COVID-19. Findings from local risk assessments are needed to fully understand national readiness capacities in relation to COVID-19. Capacity building and collaboration between countries are needed to strengthen global readiness for outbreak control. Funding None.
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              Clinical characteristics of Coronavirus disease 2019 in China

               W-J. Guan,  WJ Guan,  ZY Ni (2020)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                qinh0116@126.com
                Journal
                Protein Cell
                Protein Cell
                Protein & Cell
                Higher Education Press (Beijing )
                1674-800X
                1674-8018
                9 June 2020
                9 June 2020
                : 1-16
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.414252.4, ISNI 0000 0004 1761 8894, Research Center for Tissue Repair and Regeneration Affiliated to the Medical Innovation Research Department, , PLA General Hospital and PLA Medical College, ; Beijing, 100853 China
                [2 ]GRID grid.265021.2, ISNI 0000 0000 9792 1228, Tianjin Medical University, ; Tianjin, 300070 China
                Article
                738
                10.1007/s13238-020-00738-2
                7282699
                32519302
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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