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      Combination therapy of mycophenolate mofetil and rapamycin in prevention of chronic renal allograft rejection in the rat1 :

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          Most cited references 38

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          The Banff 97 working classification of renal allograft pathology.

          Standardization of renal allograft biopsy interpretation is necessary to guide therapy and to establish an objective end point for clinical trials. This manuscript describes a classification, Banff 97, developed by investigators using the Banff Schema and the Collaborative Clinical Trials in Transplantation (CCTT) modification for diagnosis of renal allograft pathology. Banff 97 grew from an international consensus discussion begun at Banff and continued via the Internet. This schema developed from (a) analysis of data using the Banff classification, (b) publication of and experience with the CCTT modification, (c) international conferences, and (d) data from recent studies on impact of vasculitis on transplant outcome. Semiquantitative lesion scoring continues to focus on tubulitis and arteritis but includes a minimum threshold for interstitial inflammation. Banff 97 defines "types" of acute/active rejection. Type I is tubulointerstitial rejection without arteritis. Type II is vascular rejection with intimal arteritis, and type III is severe rejection with transmural arterial changes. Biopsies with only mild inflammation are graded as "borderline/suspicious for rejection." Chronic/sclerosing allograft changes are graded based on severity of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Antibody-mediated rejection, hyperacute or accelerated acute in presentation, is also categorized, as are other significant allograft findings. The Banff 97 working classification refines earlier schemas and represents input from two classifications most widely used in clinical rejection trials and in clinical practice worldwide. Major changes include the following: rejection with vasculitis is separated from tubulointerstitial rejection; severe rejection requires transmural changes in arteries; "borderline" rejection can only be interpreted in a clinical context; antibody-mediated rejection is further defined, and lesion scoring focuses on most severely involved structures. Criteria for specimen adequacy have also been modified. Banff 97 represents a significant refinement of allograft assessment, developed via international consensus discussions.
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            Rapamycin (AY-22,989), a new antifungal antibiotic. I. Taxonomy of the producing streptomycete and isolation of the active principle.

            A streptomycete was isolated from an Easter Island soil sample and found to inhibit Candida albicans, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton granulosum. The antibiotic-producing microorganism was characterized and identified as Streptomyces hygroscopicus. The antifungal principle was extracted with organic solvent from the mycelium, isolated in crystalline form and named rapamycin. Rapamycin is mainly active against Candida albicans; minimum inhibitory concentration against ten strains ranged from 0.02 to 0.2 mug/ml. Its apparent activity against Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton granulosum is lower because of its instability in culture media on prolonged incubation required by these fungi. No activity was observed against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Acute toxicity in mice is low.
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              Rapamycin-FKBP specifically blocks growth-dependent activation of and signaling by the 70 kd S6 protein kinases.

              The macrolide rapamycin blocks cell cycle progression in yeast and various animal cells by an unknown mechanism. We demonstrate that rapamycin blocks the phosphorylation and activation of the 70 kd S6 protein kinases (pp70S6K) in a variety of animal cells. The structurally related drug FK506 had no effect on pp70S6K activation but at high concentrations reversed the rapamycin-induced block, confirming the requirement for the rapamycin and FK506 receptor, FKBP. Rapamycin also interfered with signaling by these S6 kinases, blocking serum-stimulated S6 phosphorylation and delaying entry of Swiss 3T3 cells into S phase. Neither rapamycin nor FK506 blocked activation of a distinct family of S6 kinases (RSKs) or the MAP kinases. These studies identify a rapamycin-sensitive signaling pathway, argue for a ubiquitous role for FKBPs in signal transduction, indicate that FK506-FKBP-calcineurin complexes do not interfere with pp70S6K signaling, and show that in fibroblasts pp70S6K, not RSK, is the physiological S6 kinase.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Transplantation
                Transplantation
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0041-1337
                2003
                January 2003
                : 75
                : 1
                : 54-59
                Article
                10.1097/00007890-200301150-00010
                © 2003

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