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      To name but a few: descriptions of five new species of Terebellides (Annelida, Trichobranchidae) from the North East Atlantic

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          Abstract

          The number of described species of the genus Terebellides Sars, 1835 ( Annelida , Trichobranchidae ) has greatly increased in the last years, particularly in the North East Atlantic. In this context, this paper deals with several putative species recently delineated by molecular means within a well delimited clade of Terebellides . Species are characterised here by a combination of morphological characters, and a complementary nucleotide diagnostic approach. Three species were identified as the nominal species T. stroemii Sars, 1835, T. bigeniculatus Parapar, Moreira & Helgason, 2011 and T. europaea Lavesque et al., 2019. Five species are described as new: T. bakkeni sp. nov., T. kongsrudi sp. nov., T. norvegica sp. nov., T. ronningae sp. nov. and T. scotica sp. nov. The distinctive morphological characters refer to the branchial shape, absence or presence of papillae on lamellae of anterior margin of branchial dorsal lobes, absence or presence of ciliated papillae dorsal to thoracic notopodia, geniculate chaetae in one or two chaetigers, and the morphology of thoracic and abdominal uncini teeth. Furthermore, the description of T. bigeniculatus is revised and complemented after examination of type specimens. An updated identification key to all species of the genus in NE Atlantic and a proposal of a classification of different types of abdominal uncini to be used in taxonomy are also included.

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          Most cited references 40

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          IQ-TREE: A Fast and Effective Stochastic Algorithm for Estimating Maximum-Likelihood Phylogenies

          Large phylogenomics data sets require fast tree inference methods, especially for maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogenies. Fast programs exist, but due to inherent heuristics to find optimal trees, it is not clear whether the best tree is found. Thus, there is need for additional approaches that employ different search strategies to find ML trees and that are at the same time as fast as currently available ML programs. We show that a combination of hill-climbing approaches and a stochastic perturbation method can be time-efficiently implemented. If we allow the same CPU time as RAxML and PhyML, then our software IQ-TREE found higher likelihoods between 62.2% and 87.1% of the studied alignments, thus efficiently exploring the tree-space. If we use the IQ-TREE stopping rule, RAxML and PhyML are faster in 75.7% and 47.1% of the DNA alignments and 42.2% and 100% of the protein alignments, respectively. However, the range of obtaining higher likelihoods with IQ-TREE improves to 73.3-97.1%.
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            MAFFT: a novel method for rapid multiple sequence alignment based on fast Fourier transform.

             K Katoh (2002)
            A multiple sequence alignment program, MAFFT, has been developed. The CPU time is drastically reduced as compared with existing methods. MAFFT includes two novel techniques. (i) Homo logous regions are rapidly identified by the fast Fourier transform (FFT), in which an amino acid sequence is converted to a sequence composed of volume and polarity values of each amino acid residue. (ii) We propose a simplified scoring system that performs well for reducing CPU time and increasing the accuracy of alignments even for sequences having large insertions or extensions as well as distantly related sequences of similar length. Two different heuristics, the progressive method (FFT-NS-2) and the iterative refinement method (FFT-NS-i), are implemented in MAFFT. The performances of FFT-NS-2 and FFT-NS-i were compared with other methods by computer simulations and benchmark tests; the CPU time of FFT-NS-2 is drastically reduced as compared with CLUSTALW with comparable accuracy. FFT-NS-i is over 100 times faster than T-COFFEE, when the number of input sequences exceeds 60, without sacrificing the accuracy.
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              UFBoot2: Improving the Ultrafast Bootstrap Approximation

              Abstract The standard bootstrap (SBS), despite being computationally intensive, is widely used in maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses. We recently proposed the ultrafast bootstrap approximation (UFBoot) to reduce computing time while achieving more unbiased branch supports than SBS under mild model violations. UFBoot has been steadily adopted as an efficient alternative to SBS and other bootstrap approaches. Here, we present UFBoot2, which substantially accelerates UFBoot and reduces the risk of overestimating branch supports due to polytomies or severe model violations. Additionally, UFBoot2 provides suitable bootstrap resampling strategies for phylogenomic data. UFBoot2 is 778 times (median) faster than SBS and 8.4 times (median) faster than RAxML rapid bootstrap on tested data sets. UFBoot2 is implemented in the IQ-TREE software package version 1.6 and freely available at http://www.iqtree.org.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                12 November 2020
                : 992
                : 1-58
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Departamento de Bioloxía, Universidade da Coruña, Spain Universidade da Coruña Coruña Spain
                [2 ] Departament de Biologia, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Spain Universitat de les Illes Balears Mallorca Spain
                [3 ] Sjöfartmuseet Akvariet, Göteborg, Sweden and Institutionen för marina vetenskaper, Göteborgs Universitet, Sweden Göteborgs Universitet Göteborg Sweden
                [4 ] Departamento de Biología (Zoología) & Centro de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Cambio Global (CIBC-UAM), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Madrid Spain
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Julio Parapar ( julio.parapar@ 123456udc.es )

                Academic editor: C. Glasby

                Article
                55977
                10.3897/zookeys.992.55977
                7677295
                Julio Parapar, María Capa, Arne Nygren, Juan Moreira

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Trichobranchidae
                Taxonomy
                Northern Europe

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