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      Role of kidney injury in sepsis

      Journal of Intensive Care

      BioMed Central

      Sepsis, Acute kidney injury, Chronic kidney disease, Lung injury, High mobility group box 1

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          Abstract

          Kidney injury, including acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), has become very common in critically ill patients treated in ICUs. Many epidemiological studies have revealed significant associations of AKI and CKD with poor outcomes of high mortality and medical costs. Although many basic studies have clarified the possible mechanisms of sepsis and septic AKI, translation of the obtained findings to clinical settings has not been successful to date. No specific drug against human sepsis or AKI is currently available. Remarkable progress of dialysis techniques such as continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) has enabled control of “uremia” in hemodynamically unstable patients; however, dialysis-requiring septic AKI patients are still showing unacceptably high mortality of 60–80 %. Therefore, further investigations must be conducted to improve the outcome of sepsis and septic AKI. A possible target will be remote organ injury caused by AKI. Recent basic studies have identified interleukin-6 and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) as important mediators for acute lung injury induced by AKI. Another target is the disease pathway that is amplified by pre-existing CKD. Vascular endothelial growth factor and HMGB1 elevations in sepsis were demonstrated to be amplified by CKD in CKD-sepsis animal models. Understanding the role of kidney injury as an amplifier in sepsis and multiple organ failure might support the identification of new drug targets for sepsis and septic AKI.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Acute kidney injury, mortality, length of stay, and costs in hospitalized patients.

          The marginal effects of acute kidney injury on in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), and costs have not been well described. A consecutive sample of 19,982 adults who were admitted to an urban academic medical center, including 9210 who had two or more serum creatinine (SCr) determinations, was evaluated. The presence and degree of acute kidney injury were assessed using absolute and relative increases from baseline to peak SCr concentration during hospitalization. Large increases in SCr concentration were relatively rare (e.g., >or=2.0 mg/dl in 105 [1%] patients), whereas more modest increases in SCr were common (e.g., >or=0.5 mg/dl in 1237 [13%] patients). Modest changes in SCr were significantly associated with mortality, LOS, and costs, even after adjustment for age, gender, admission International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis, severity of illness (diagnosis-related group weight), and chronic kidney disease. For example, an increase in SCr >or=0.5 mg/dl was associated with a 6.5-fold (95% confidence interval 5.0 to 8.5) increase in the odds of death, a 3.5-d increase in LOS, and nearly 7500 dollars in excess hospital costs. Acute kidney injury is associated with significantly increased mortality, LOS, and costs across a broad spectrum of conditions. Moreover, outcomes are related directly to the severity of acute kidney injury, whether characterized by nominal or percentage changes in serum creatinine.
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            HMG-1 as a late mediator of endotoxin lethality in mice.

            Endotoxin, a constituent of Gram-negative bacteria, stimulates macrophages to release large quantities of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), which can precipitate tissue injury and lethal shock (endotoxemia). Antagonists of TNF and IL-1 have shown limited efficacy in clinical trials, possibly because these cytokines are early mediators in pathogenesis. Here a potential late mediator of lethality is identified and characterized in a mouse model. High mobility group-1 (HMG-1) protein was found to be released by cultured macrophages more than 8 hours after stimulation with endotoxin, TNF, or IL-1. Mice showed increased serum levels of HMG-1 from 8 to 32 hours after endotoxin exposure. Delayed administration of antibodies to HMG-1 attenuated endotoxin lethality in mice, and administration of HMG-1 itself was lethal. Septic patients who succumbed to infection had increased serum HMG-1 levels, suggesting that this protein warrants investigation as a therapeutic target.
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              Reversing established sepsis with antagonists of endogenous high-mobility group box 1.

               H. Yang,  M Ochani,  J. LI (2004)
              Despite significant advances in intensive care therapy and antibiotics, severe sepsis accounts for 9% of all deaths in the United States annually. The pathological sequelae of sepsis are characterized by a systemic inflammatory response, but experimental therapeutics that target specific early inflammatory mediators [tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-1beta] have not proven efficacious in the clinic. We recently identified high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) as a late mediator of endotoxin-induced lethality that exhibits significantly delayed kinetics relative to TNF and IL-1beta. Here, we report that serum HMGB1 levels are increased significantly in a standardized model of murine sepsis, beginning 18 h after surgical induction of peritonitis. Specific inhibition of HMGB1 activity [with either anti-HMGB1 antibody (600 microg per mouse) or the DNA-binding A box (600 microg per mouse)] beginning as late as 24 h after surgical induction of peritonitis significantly increased survival (nonimmune IgG-treated controls = 28% vs. anti-HMGB1 antibody group = 72%, P < 0.03; GST control protein = 28% vs. A box = 68%, P < 0.03). Animals treated with either HMGB1 antagonist were protected against the development of organ injury, as evidenced by improved levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. These observations demonstrate that specific inhibition of endogenous HMGB1 therapeutically reverses lethality of established sepsis indicating that HMGB1 inhibitors can be administered in a clinically relevant time frame.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +81-3-3815-5411 , kdoi-tky@umin.ac.jp
                Journal
                J Intensive Care
                J Intensive Care
                Journal of Intensive Care
                BioMed Central (London )
                2052-0492
                23 March 2016
                23 March 2016
                2016
                : 4
                Affiliations
                Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, The University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, 113-8655 Japan
                Article
                146
                10.1186/s40560-016-0146-3
                4804517
                27011788
                © Doi. 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: Charitable Trust Araki Medical and Biochemical Research Memorial Fund
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                © The Author(s) 2016

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