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      Adrenomedullin, a multifunctional regulatory peptide.

      Endocrine Reviews
      Adrenomedullin, Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Gene Expression Regulation, Humans, Molecular Sequence Data, Peptides, chemistry, genetics, physiology, Receptors, Adrenomedullin, Receptors, Peptide, Sequence Alignment, Signal Transduction

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          Abstract

          Since the discovery of adrenomedullin in 1993 several hundred papers have been published regarding the regulation of its secretion and the multiplicity of its actions. It has been shown to be an almost ubiquitous peptide, with the number of tissues and cell types synthesizing adrenomedullin far exceeding those that do not. In Section II of this paper we give a comprehensive review both of tissues and cell lines secreting adrenomedullin and of the mechanisms regulating gene expression. The data on circulating adrenomedullin, obtained with the various assays available, are also reviewed, and the disease states in which plasma adrenomedullin is elevated are listed. In Section III the pharmacology and biochemistry of adrenomedullin binding sites, both specific sites and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors, are discussed. In particular, the putative adrenomedullin receptor clones and signal transduction pathways are described. In Section IV the various actions of adrenomedullin are discussed: its actions on cellular growth, the cardiovascular system, the central nervous system, and the endocrine system are all considered. Finally, in Section V, we consider some unresolved issues and propose future areas for research.

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