Blog
About

40
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      The unique cytoarchitecture of human pancreatic islets has implications for islet cell function

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The cytoarchitecture of human islets has been examined, focusing on cellular associations that provide the anatomical framework for paracrine interactions. By using confocal microscopy and multiple immunofluorescence, we found that, contrary to descriptions of prototypical islets in textbooks and in the literature, human islets did not show anatomical subdivisions. Insulin-immunoreactive beta cells, glucagon-immunoreactive alpha cells, and somatostatin-containing delta cells were found scattered throughout the human islet. Human beta cells were not clustered, and most (71%) showed associations with other endocrine cells, suggesting unique paracrine interactions in human islets. Human islets contained proportionally fewer beta cells and more alpha cells than did mouse islets. In human islets, most beta, alpha, and delta cells were aligned along blood vessels with no particular order or arrangement, indicating that islet microcirculation likely does not determine the order of paracrine interactions. We further investigated whether the unique human islet cytoarchitecture had functional implications. Applying imaging of cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i, we found that beta cell oscillatory activity was not coordinated throughout the human islet as it was in mouse islets. Furthermore, human islets responded with an increase in [Ca2+]i when lowering the glucose concentration to 1 mM, which can be attributed to the large contribution of alpha cells to the islet composition. We conclude that the unique cellular arrangement of human islets has functional implications for islet cell function.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 27

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Automated method for isolation of human pancreatic islets.

          We describe an automated method for the isolation of human pancreatic islets. The procedure meets the following requirements: 1) minimal traumatic action on the islets, 2) continuous digestion in which the islets that are progressively liberated can be saved from further enzymatic action, 3) minimal human intervention in the digestion process, and 4) high yield and purity of the isolated islets. After purification on Ficoll gradients, an average of 164,600 islets/pancreas was obtained (2279 islets/g), with an average purity of 78.5% islets. The average volume and average insulin content of the final islet preparation were 348 mm3 and 93.4 U, respectively. The islets were morphologically intact with a normal degree of beta-granulation and responded to glucose stimulation with a fivefold increase of insulin secretion over basal levels. The procedure is now being used for the initiation of the second phase of clinical trials on human islet transplants.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Loss of connexin36 channels alters beta-cell coupling, islet synchronization of glucose-induced Ca2+ and insulin oscillations, and basal insulin release.

            Normal insulin secretion requires the coordinated functioning of beta-cells within pancreatic islets. This coordination depends on a communications network that involves the interaction of beta-cells with extracellular signals and neighboring cells. In particular, adjacent beta-cells are coupled via channels made of connexin36 (Cx36). To assess the function of this protein, we investigated islets of transgenic mice in which the Cx36 gene was disrupted by homologous recombination. We observed that compared with wild-type and heterozygous littermates that expressed Cx36 and behaved as nontransgenic controls, mice homozygous for the Cx36 deletion (Cx36(-/-)) featured beta-cells devoid of gap junctions and failing to exchange microinjected Lucifer yellow. During glucose stimulation, islets of Cx36(-/-) mice did not display the regular oscillations of intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) seen in controls due to the loss of cell-to-cell synchronization of [Ca(2+)](i) changes. The same islets did not release insulin in a pulsatile fashion, even though the overall output of the hormone in response to glucose stimulation was normal. However, under nonstimulatory conditions, islets lacking Cx36 showed increased basal release of insulin. These data show that Cx36-dependent signaling is essential for the proper functioning of beta-cells, particularly for the pulsatility of [Ca(2+)](i) and insulin secretion during glucose stimulation.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Reduced beta-cell mass and expression of oxidative stress-related DNA damage in the islet of Japanese Type II diabetic patients

                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                PNAS
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                0027-8424
                1091-6490
                February 14 2006
                February 14 2006
                February 14 2006
                February 06 2006
                : 103
                : 7
                : 2334-2339
                Article
                10.1073/pnas.0510790103
                1413730
                16461897
                © 2006

                Comments

                Comment on this article