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      Preceding Intravenous Thrombolysis Facilitates Endovascular Mechanical Recanalization in Large Intracranial Artery Occlusion

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          Abstract

          Acute occlusions of the large intracranial arteries are relatively resistant to intravenous thrombolysis. Therefore, multimodal approaches combining intravenous thrombolysis with endovascular mechanical recanalization are increasingly being applied. In this setting, intravenous thrombolysis may facilitate subsequent mechanical thrombectomy. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the influence of intravenous thrombolysis on net intervention time in subsequent endovascular mechanical recanalization.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA Stroke Study Group.

           Paul O'Byrne (1996)
          Thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke has been approached cautiously because there were high rates of intracerebral hemorrhage in early clinical trials. We performed a randomized, double-blind trial of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) for ischemic stroke after recent pilot studies suggested that t-PA was beneficial when treatment was begun within three hours of the onset of stroke. The trial had two parts. Part 1 (in which 291 patients were enrolled) tested whether t-PA had clinical activity, as indicated by an improvement of 4 points over base-line values in the score of the National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) or the resolution of the neurologic deficit within 24 hours of the onset of stroke. Part 2 (in which 333 patients were enrolled) used a global test statistic to assess clinical outcome at three months, according to scores on the Barthel index, modified Rankin scale, Glasgow outcome scale, and NIHSS: In part 1, there was no significant difference between the group given t-PA and that given placebo in the percentages of patients with neurologic improvement at 24 hours, although a benefit was observed for the t-PA group at three months for all four outcome measures. In part 2, the long-term clinical benefit of t-PA predicted by the results of part 1 was confirmed (global odds ratio for a favorable outcome, 1.7; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 2.6). As compared with patients given placebo, patients treated with t-PA were at least 30 percent more likely to have minimal or no disability at three months on the assessment scales. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage within 36 hours after the onset of stroke occurred in 6.4 percent of patients given t-PA but only 0.6 percent of patients given placebo (P < 0.001). Mortality at three months was 17 percent in the t-PA group and 21 percent in the placebo group (P = 0.30). Despite an increased incidence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, treatment with intravenous t-PA within three hours of the onset of ischemic stroke improved clinical outcome at three months.
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            Thrombolysis with alteplase 3 to 4.5 hours after acute ischemic stroke.

            Intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase is the only approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke, but its efficacy and safety when administered more than 3 hours after the onset of symptoms have not been established. We tested the efficacy and safety of alteplase administered between 3 and 4.5 hours after the onset of a stroke. After exclusion of patients with a brain hemorrhage or major infarction, as detected on a computed tomographic scan, we randomly assigned patients with acute ischemic stroke in a 1:1 double-blind fashion to receive treatment with intravenous alteplase (0.9 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo. The primary end point was disability at 90 days, dichotomized as a favorable outcome (a score of 0 or 1 on the modified Rankin scale, which has a range of 0 to 6, with 0 indicating no symptoms at all and 6 indicating death) or an unfavorable outcome (a score of 2 to 6 on the modified Rankin scale). The secondary end point was a global outcome analysis of four neurologic and disability scores combined. Safety end points included death, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, and other serious adverse events. We enrolled a total of 821 patients in the study and randomly assigned 418 to the alteplase group and 403 to the placebo group. The median time for the administration of alteplase was 3 hours 59 minutes. More patients had a favorable outcome with alteplase than with placebo (52.4% vs. 45.2%; odds ratio, 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.76; P=0.04). In the global analysis, the outcome was also improved with alteplase as compared with placebo (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.65; P<0.05). The incidence of intracranial hemorrhage was higher with alteplase than with placebo (for any intracranial hemorrhage, 27.0% vs. 17.6%; P=0.001; for symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, 2.4% vs. 0.2%; P=0.008). Mortality did not differ significantly between the alteplase and placebo groups (7.7% and 8.4%, respectively; P=0.68). There was no significant difference in the rate of other serious adverse events. As compared with placebo, intravenous alteplase administered between 3 and 4.5 hours after the onset of symptoms significantly improved clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke; alteplase was more frequently associated with symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00153036.) 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Thrombolysis with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke in the Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-Monitoring Study (SITS-MOST): an observational study.

              The aim of the Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-Monitoring Study (SITS-MOST) was to assess the safety and efficacy of intravenous alteplase as thrombolytic therapy within the first 3 h of onset of acute ischaemic stroke. Under European Union regulations, SITS-MOST was required to assess the safety profile of alteplase in clinical practice by comparison with results in randomised controlled trials. 6483 patients were recruited from 285 centres (50% with little previous experience in stroke thrombolysis) in 14 countries between 2002 and 2006 for this prospective, open, monitored, observational study. Primary outcomes were symptomatic (a deterioration in National Institutes of Health stroke scale score of >or=4) intracerebral haemorrhage type 2 within 24 h and mortality at 3 months. We compared mortality, the proportion of patients with symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage as per the Cochrane definition, and functional outcome at 3 months with relevant pooled results from randomised controlled trials. Baseline characteristics of patients in SITS-MOST were much the same as those in the pooled randomised controlled trials. At 24 h, the proportion of patients with symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (per the SITS-MOST protocol) was 1.7% (107/6444; 95% CI 1.4-2.0); at 7 days, the proportion with the same condition as per the Cochrane definition was 7.3% (468/6438; 6.7-7.9) compared with 8.6% (40/465; 6.3-11.6) in the pooled randomised controlled trials. The mortality rate at 3 months in SITS-MOST was 11.3% (701/6218; 10.5-12.1) compared with 17.3% (83/479; 14.1-21.1) in the pooled randomised controlled trials. These data confirm that intravenous alteplase is safe and effective in routine clinical use when used within 3 h of stroke onset, even by centres with little previous experience of thrombolytic therapy for acute stroke. The findings should encourage wider use of thrombolytic therapy for suitable patients treated in stroke centres.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                International Journal of Stroke
                International Journal of Stroke
                Wiley
                1747-4930
                1747-4949
                December 20 2011
                January 2012
                October 20 2011
                January 2012
                : 7
                : 1
                : 14-18
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Neurology, Klinikum Grosshadern, University of Munich, Munich, Germany
                [2 ]Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, University of Munich, Munich, Germany
                Article
                10.1111/j.1747-4949.2011.00639.x
                22010996
                © 2012

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