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      Inhibition of Parathyroid Hormone: A Dose Equivalency Study of Paricalcitol and Doxercalciferol


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          Introduction: Paricalcitol and doxercalciferol are effective in reducing parathyroid hormone PTH concentrations in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative dose of doxercalciferol (compared to paricalcitol) required to maintain equivalent PTH concentrations in dialysis patients. Methods: Chronic hemodialysis patients treated with a stable dose of paricalcitol for at least 3 months were randomized to receive doxercalciferol at either 35, 50, or 65% of the paricalcitol dose for 6 weeks. Serum iPTH, calcium, phosphorus, and albumin were determined at baseline and monitored every 2 weeks. A linear regression analysis of percent change in iPTH values by dose group was performed to determine the conversion factor. Results: 27 patients were enrolled. Initial iPTH, adjusted serum calcium, serum phosphorus, and Ca×P were similar among the treatment groups. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a conversion factor of 0.57 for the dose of doxercalciferol relative to paricalcitol resulting in equivalent suppression of iPTH. Corrected serum calcium, phosphorus, Ca×P product, as well as incidence of hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and Ca×P >50 were similar for all groups. Conclusion: In patients on a maintenance dose of paricalcitol, dosing doxercalciferol at 55–60% of the paricalcitol dose results in comparable inhibition of PTH.

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          Survival of patients undergoing hemodialysis with paricalcitol or calcitriol therapy.

          Elevated calcium and phosphorus levels after therapy with injectable vitamin D for secondary hyperparathyroidism may accelerate vascular disease and hasten death in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Paricalcitol, a new vitamin D analogue, appears to lessen the elevations in serum calcium and phosphorus levels, as compared with calcitriol, the standard form of injectable vitamin D. We conducted a historical cohort study to compare the 36-month survival rate among patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis who started to receive treatment with paricalcitol (29,021 patients) or calcitriol (38,378 patients) between 1999 and 2001. Crude and adjusted survival rates were calculated and stratified analyses were performed. A subgroup of 16,483 patients who switched regimens was also evaluated. The mortality rate among patients receiving paricalcitol was 3417 per 19,031 person-years (0.180 per person-year), as compared with 6805 per 30,471 person-years (0.223 per person-year) among those receiving calcitriol (P<0.001). The difference in survival was significant at 12 months and increased with time (P<0.001). In the adjusted analysis, the mortality rate was 16 percent lower (95 percent confidence interval, 10 to 21 percent) among paricalcitol-treated patients than among calcitriol-treated patients. A significant survival benefit was evident in 28 of 42 strata examined, and in no stratum was calcitriol favored. At 12 months, calcium and phosphorus levels had increased by 6.7 and 11.9 percent, respectively, in the paricalcitol group, as compared with 8.2 and 13.9 percent, respectively, in the calcitriol group (P<0.001). The two-year survival rate among patients who switched from calcitriol to paricalcitol was 73 percent, as compared with 64 percent among those who switched from paricalcitol to calcitriol (P=0.04). Patients who receive paricalcitol while undergoing long-term hemodialysis appear to have a significant survival advantage over those who receive calcitriol. A prospective, randomized study is critical to confirm these findings. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Paricalcitol versus calcitriol in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism.

            Management of secondary hyperparathyroidism has included the use of active vitamin D or vitamin D analogs for the suppression of parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. Although, these agents are effective, therapy is frequently limited by hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and/or elevations in the calcium-phosphorus (Ca x P) product. In clinical studies, paricalcitol was shown to be effective at reducing PTH concentrations without causing significant hypercalcemia or hyperphosphatemia as compared to placebo. A comparative study was undertaken in order to determine whether paricalcitol provides a therapeutic advantage to calcitriol. A double-blind, randomized, multicenter study comparing the safety and effectiveness of intravenous paricalcitol and calcitriol in suppressing PTH concentrations in hemodialysis patients was performed. A total of 263 randomized patients were enrolled at domestic and international sites. Following the baseline period, patients with serum Ca x P or =300 pg/mL were randomly assigned to receive either paricalcitol or calcitriol in a dose-escalating fashion for up to 32 weeks. Dose adjustments were based on laboratory results for PTH, calcium, and Ca x P. The primary end point was the greater than 50% reduction in baseline PTH. Secondary end points were the occurrence of hypercalcemia and elevated Ca x P product. Paricalcitol-treated patients achieved a > or =50% reduction from baseline PTH significantly faster than did the calcitriol-treated patients (P = 0.025) and achieved a mean reduction of PTH into a desired therapeutic range (100 to 300 pg/mL) at approximately week 18, whereas the calcitriol-treated patients, as a group, were unable to achieve this range. Moreover, paricalcitol-treated patients had significantly fewer sustained episodes of hypercalcemia and/or increased Ca x P product than calcitriol patients (P = 0.008). Paricalcitol treatment reduced PTH concentrations more rapidly with fewer sustained episodes of hypercalcemia and increased Ca x P product than calcitriol therapy.
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              Risk factors for hip fracture among patients with end-stage renal disease.

              Although bone disease is well described among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, little attention has been paid to the occurrence of fracture. We sought to identify factors that are associated with hip fracture among ESRD patients. Data from patients who participated in the United States Renal Data System Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study Wave 1 were used for this study. Hip fractures occurring among these patients between 1993 and 1996 were identified from Medicare claims data available from the United States Renal Data System. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk of hip fracture associated with demographic and medical variables. Of the 4952 patients included in this analysis, 103 sustained a hip fracture. In the multivariate analysis, age (per increasing decade, RR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.20, 1.64), female gender (RR = 2.26, 95% CI 1.48, 3.44), race (blacks compared with whites, RR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.37, 0.91), body mass index (per 1 unit increase, RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.86, 0.93), and the presence of peripheral vascular disease (RR 1.94, 95% CI 1.29, 2.92) were independently associated with hip fracture. Serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), aluminum, diabetes, and bicarbonate levels did not appreciably influence the risk of hip fracture. Demographic and other characteristics that predict risk of hip fracture in the population at large also do so in ESRD patients. However, we could identify no characteristics of ESRD or its treatment that were independently related to hip fracture incidence.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                December 2005
                09 November 2005
                : 25
                : 6
                : 591-595
                Evanston Northwestern Healthcare Division of Nephrology, Evanston, Ill., USA
                89707 Am J Nephrol 2005;25:591–595
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 12 September 2005
                : 28 September 2005
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 26, Pages: 5
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/89707
                Self URI (text/html): https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/89707
                Self URI (journal page): https://www.karger.com/SubjectArea/Nephrology
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Secondary hyperparathyroidism,Dose equivalency,Paricalcitol,Doxercalciferol


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