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      Intradialytic Exercise in Hemodialysis Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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          Abstract

          Background and Objective: Hemodialysis (HD) patients are more inactive, leading to poor functional capacity and quality of life; this may be reversed with intradialytic exercise training. To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of intradialytic exercise for HD patients, we conducted a meta-analysis of the published randomized controlled trials. Data Sources and Methods: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched up to February, 2014. The reference lists of eligible studies and relevant reviews were also checked. Results: 24 studies of 997 patients were included. Compared with control, intradialytic exercise significantly improve Kt/V (SMD = 0.27, 95% CI 0.01-0.53), peak oxygen consumption (VO<sub>2peak</sub>) (SMD = 0.53, 95% CI 0.30-0.76), and physical performance of physical function of life (SMD = 0.30, 95% CI 0.04-0.55). However, no significant improvements were found in the mental function of life. There was no significant difference with respect to musculoskeletal and cardiovascular complications between the intradialytic exercise groups and control groups. Further subgroup analysis found that, when the trial duration was more than 6 months, the intervention had significant effects on VO<sub>2peak</sub> (SMD = 0.89, 95% CI 0.56-1.22). However, when the trial duration was less than 6 months, the change of VO<sub>2peak</sub> was not significant (SMD = 0.19, 95% CI -0.13 to 0.51). Conclusion: Intradialytic exercise can improve Kt/V, VO<sub>2peak</sub>, and the physical quality of life, and intradialytic exercise is safe for HD patients. Therefore, we put forward the suggestion that clinical guideline be updated to inform clinicians on the benefits of intradialytic exercise on HD patients. i 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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          Most cited references 40

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          Effects of endurance training on blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and cardiovascular risk factors.

          Previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials on the effects of chronic dynamic aerobic endurance training on blood pressure reported on resting blood pressure only. Our aim was to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis including resting and ambulatory blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. Inclusion criteria of studies were: random allocation to intervention and control; endurance training as the sole intervention; inclusion of healthy sedentary normotensive or hypertensive adults; intervention duration of > or =4 weeks; availability of systolic or diastolic blood pressure; and publication in a peer-reviewed journal up to December 2003. The meta-analysis involved 72 trials, 105 study groups, and 3936 participants. After weighting for the number of trained participants and using a random-effects model, training induced significant net reductions of resting and daytime ambulatory blood pressure of, respectively, 3.0/2.4 mm Hg (P<0.001) and 3.3/3.5 mm Hg (P<0.01). The reduction of resting blood pressure was more pronounced in the 30 hypertensive study groups (-6.9/-4.9) than in the others (-1.9/-1.6; P<0.001 for all). Systemic vascular resistance decreased by 7.1% (P<0.05), plasma norepinephrine by 29% (P<0.001), and plasma renin activity by 20% (P<0.05). Body weight decreased by 1.2 kg (P<0.001), waist circumference by 2.8 cm (P<0.001), percent body fat by 1.4% (P<0.001), and the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance by 0.31 U (P<0.01); HDL cholesterol increased by 0.032 mmol/L(-1) (P<0.05). In conclusion, aerobic endurance training decreases blood pressure through a reduction of vascular resistance, in which the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system appear to be involved, and favorably affects concomitant cardiovascular risk factors.
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            Effects of resistance exercise training and nandrolone decanoate on body composition and muscle function among patients who receive hemodialysis: A randomized, controlled trial.

            Patients who are on hemodialysis commonly experience muscle wasting and weakness, which have a negative effect on physical functioning and quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine whether anabolic steroid administration and resistance exercise training induce anabolic effects among patients who receive maintenance hemodialysis. A randomized 2 x 2 factorial trial of anabolic steroid administration and resistance exercise training was conducted in 79 patients who were receiving maintenance hemodialysis at University of California, San Francisco-affiliated dialysis units. Interventions included double-blinded weekly nandrolone decanoate (100 mg for women; 200 mg for men) or placebo injections and lower extremity resistance exercise training for 12 wk during hemodialysis sessions three times per week using ankle weights. Primary outcomes included change in lean body mass (LBM) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and knee extensor muscle strength. Secondary outcomes included changes in physical performance, self-reported physical functioning, and physical activity. Sixty-eight patients completed the study. Patients who received nandrolone decanoate increased their LBM by 3.1 +/- 2.2 kg (P < 0.0001). Exercise did not result in a significant increase in LBM. Quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area increased in patients who were assigned to exercise (P = 0.01) and to nandrolone (P < 0.0001) in an additive manner. Patients who exercised increased their strength in a training-specific fashion, and exercise was associated with an improvement in self-reported physical functioning (P = 0.04 compared with nonexercising groups). Nandrolone decanoate and resistance exercise produced anabolic effects among patients who were on hemodialysis. Further studies are needed to determine whether these interventions improve survival.
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              Exercise in the end-stage renal disease population.

              Many of the known benefits of exercise in the general population are of particular relevance to the ESRD population. In addition, the poor physical functioning that is experienced by patients who are on dialysis is potentially addressable through exercise interventions. The study of exercise in the ESRD population dates back almost 30 yr, and numerous interventions, including aerobic training, resistance exercise training, and combined training programs, have reported beneficial effects. Recently, interventions during hemodialysis sessions have become more popular and have been shown to be safe. The risks of exercise in this population have not been rigorously studied, but there have been no reports of serious injury as a result of participation in an exercise training program. It is time that we incorporate exercise into the routine care of patients who are on dialysis, but identification of an optimal training regimen or regimens, according to patient characteristics or needs, is still needed to facilitate implementation of exercise programs.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2014
                December 2014
                09 December 2014
                : 40
                : 5
                : 478-490
                Affiliations
                aKidney Disease Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou,Zhejiang Province, and bThe Nephrology Department, Zhejiang Hospital, Hangzhou, China
                Author notes
                *Jianghua Chen, Kidney Disease Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Qingchun Road 79, Hangzhou, 310003 (China), E-Mail chenjianghua@zju.edu.cn
                Article
                368722 Am J Nephrol 2014;40:478-490
                10.1159/000368722
                25504020
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 2, Pages: 13
                Categories
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

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