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      Polymyxin B hemoperfusion in endotoxemic septic shock patients without extreme endotoxemia: a post hoc analysis of the EUPHRATES trial

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          The EUPHRATES trial examined the impact of polymyxin B hemoperfusion (PMX) on mortality in patients with septic shock and endotoxemia, defined as EAA ≥ 0.60. No difference was found in 28-day all-cause mortality. However, the trial showed that in some patients with septic shock the burden of endotoxin activity was extreme (EAA ≥ 0.9). In a post hoc analysis, we evaluated the impact of PMX use in patients with septic shock and endotoxin activity measured between 0.6–0.89.

          Methods

          Post-hoc analysis of the EUPHRATES trial for the 194 patients with EAA ≥ 0.6–0.89 who completed two treatments (PMX or sham). The primary end point was mortality at 28 days adjusted for APACHE II score and baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP). Additional end points included changes in MAP, cumulative vasopressor index (CVI), median EAA reduction, ventilator-free days (VFD), dialysis-free days (DFD) and hospital length of stay. Subpopulations analyzed were site and type of infection and those with norepinephrine dose > 0.1 mcg/kg/min at baseline.

          Results

          At 28 days, 23 patients of 88 (26.1%) in the PMX group died versus 39 of 106 (36.8%) in the sham group [risk difference 10.7%, OR 0.52, 95% CI (0.27, 0.99), P = 0.047]. When unadjusted for baseline variables, P = 0.11. The 28-day survival time in the PMX group was longer than for the sham group [HR 0.56 (95% CI 0.33, 0.95) P = 0.03]. PMX treatment compared with sham showed greater change in MAP [median (IQR) 8 mmHg (− 0.5, 19.5) vs. 4 mmHg (− 4.0, 11) P = 0.04] and VFD [median (IQR) 20 days (0.5, 23.5) vs. 6 days (0, 20), P = 0.004]. There were no significant differences in other end points. There was a significant difference in mortality in PMX-treated patients with no bacterial growth on culture [PMX, 6/30 (20%) vs. sham, 13/31 (41.9%), P = 0.005]. The median EAA change in the population was − 12.9% (range: increase 49.2%–reduction 86.3%). The mortality in the above median EAA change group was PMX: 6/38 (15.7%) vs. sham 15/49 (30.6%), P = 0.08.

          Conclusions

          These hypothesis-generating results, based on an exploratory post hoc analysis of the EUPHRATES trial, suggest measurable responses in patients with septic shock and an EAA ≥ 0.6 to 0.89 on changes in mean arterial pressure, ventilator-free days and mortality.

          Trial registration

          Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01046669. Funding Spectral Medical Incorporated.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (10.1007/s00134-018-5463-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 18

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          Diagnostic and prognostic implications of endotoxemia in critical illness: results of the MEDIC study.

          A novel assay for endotoxin, based on the ability of antigen-antibody complexes to prime neutrophils for an augmented respiratory burst response, was studied in a cohort study of 857 patients admitted to an intensive-care unit (ICU). On the day of ICU admission, 57.2% of patients had either intermediate (>or=0.40 endotoxin activity [EA] units) or high (>or=0.60 units) EA levels. Gram-negative infection was present in 1.4% of patients with low EA levels, 4.9% with intermediate levels, and 6.9% with high levels; EA had a sensitivity of 85.3% and a specificity of 44.0% for the diagnosis of gram-negative infection. Rates of severe sepsis were 4.9%, 9.2%, and 13.2%, and ICU mortality was 10.9%, 13.2%, and 16.8% for patients with low, intermediate, and high EA levels, respectively. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that elevated Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, gram-negative infection, and emergency admission status were independent predictors of EA.
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            Early use of polymyxin B hemoperfusion in patients with septic shock due to peritonitis: a multicenter randomized control trial

            Purpose To test whether the polymyxin B hemoperfusion (PMX HP) fiber column reduces mortality and organ failure in peritonitis-induced septic shock (SS) from abdominal infections. Method Prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial in 18 French intensive care units from October 2010 to March 2013, enrolling 243 patients with SS within 12 h after emergency surgery for peritonitis related to organ perforation. The PMX HP group received conventional therapy plus two sessions of PMX HP. Primary outcome was mortality on day 28; secondary outcomes were mortality on day 90 and a reduction in the severity of organ failures based on Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores. Results Primary outcome: day 28 mortality in the PMX HP group (n = 119) was 27.7 versus 19.5 % in the conventional group (n = 113), p = 0.14 (OR 1.5872, 95 % CI 0.8583–2.935). Secondary endpoints: mortality rate at day 90 was 33.6 % in PMX-HP versus 24 % in conventional groups, p = 0.10 (OR 1.6128, 95 % CI 0.9067–2.8685); reduction in SOFA score from day 0 to day 7 was −5 (−11 to 6) in PMX-HP versus −5 (−11 to 9), p = 0.78. Comparable results were observed in the predefined subgroups (presence of comorbidity; adequacy of surgery, <2 sessions of hemoperfusion) and for SOFA reduction from day 0 to day 3. Conclusion This multicenter randomized controlled study demonstrated a non-significant increase in mortality and no improvement in organ failure with PMX HP treatment compared to conventional treatment of peritonitis-induced SS. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00134-015-3751-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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              Blood purification and mortality in sepsis: a meta-analysis of randomized trials.

              Although blood purification improves outcomes in animal studies of sepsis, results of clinical trials have been mixed. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials to determine the association between various blood purification techniques and all-cause mortality in humans with sepsis. We searched for relevant studies in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library database from January 1966 to May 2012. Inclusion required a diagnosis of sepsis and comparison of blood purification techniques including hemofiltration, hemoperfusion, plasma exchange, or hemodialysis with no blood purification (control group). Two authors independently selected studies and extracted data. Summary statistics, risk ratios, and CIs were calculated using random-effects modeling. Study quality was assessed using Jadad score, and publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger's statistic. Overall, blood purification decreased mortality compared with no blood purification (35.7% vs 50.1%; risk ratio, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.56-0.84]; p<0.001; 16 trials, n=827). However, these results were driven mainly by hemoperfusion (risk ratio, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.50-0.80]; p<0.001; 10 trials, n=557) and plasma exchange (risk ratio, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.42-0.96]; p=0.03; two trials, n=128). Pooling of all trials of blood purification for treatment of sepsis was no longer associated with lower mortality (risk ratio, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.71-1.13]; p=0.36; eight trials, n=457) after excluding trials using polymyxin B hemoperfusion. Blood purification techniques including hemoperfusion, plasma exchange, and hemofiltration with hemoperfusion were associated with lower mortality in patients with sepsis. These results were mainly influenced by studies using polymyxin B hemoperfusion from Japan.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                416-864-6060 , kleind@smh.ca
                Journal
                Intensive Care Med
                Intensive Care Med
                Intensive Care Medicine
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                0342-4642
                1432-1238
                23 November 2018
                23 November 2018
                2018
                : 44
                : 12
                : 2205-2212
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 2938, GRID grid.17063.33, Department of Critical Care, St. Michael’s Hospital, , University of Toronto, ; 4-054c Donnelly Wing, Toronto, ON M5B1W8 Canada
                [2 ]Spectral Medical Inc, Toronto, Canada
                [3 ]GRID grid.17089.37, Department of Critical Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, , University of Alberta, ; Edmonton, Canada
                [4 ]AMAREX Clinical Research, Germantown, MD USA
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0941 3192, GRID grid.8142.f, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS-Universitá Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, ; Rome, Italy
                Article
                5463
                10.1007/s00134-018-5463-7
                6280819
                30470853
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Funding
                Funded by: Spectral Medical Inc.
                Award ID: Not Applicable
                Award Recipient :
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                Original
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                © Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

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