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Electromagnetic field correlators, Maxwell stress tensor, and the Casimir effect for parallel walls

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      Abstract

      We evaluate the quantum electromagnetic field correlators associated with the electromagnetic vacuum distorted by the presence of two plane parallel conducting walls and in the presence of a conducting wall parallel to a perfectly magnetically permeable one. Regularization is performed through the generalized zeta funtion technique. Results are applied to rederive the atractive and repulsive Casimir effect through Maxwell stress tensor. Surface divergences are shown to cancel out when stresses on both sides of the material surface are taken into account.

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      Magneto-optical trapping of diatomic molecules

      The development of the magneto-optical trap revolutionized the fields of atomic and quantum physics by providing a simple method for the rapid production of ultracold, trapped atoms. A similar technique for producing a diverse set of dense, ultracold diatomic molecular species will likewise transform the study of strongly interacting quantum systems, precision measurement, and physical chemistry. We demonstrate one- and two-dimensional transverse laser cooling and magneto-optical trapping of the polar molecule yttrium (II) oxide (YO). Using a quasicycling optical transition we observe transverse Doppler cooling of a YO molecular beam to a temperature of 5 mK, limited by interaction time. With the addition of an oscillating magnetic quadrupole field we demonstrate a transverse magneto-optical trap and achieve temperatures of 2 mK.
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        Superdense Crystal Packings of Ellipsoids

        Particle packing problems have fascinated people since the dawn of civilization, and continue to intrigue mathematicians and scientists. Resurgent interest has been spurred by the recent proof of Kepler's conjecture: the face-centered cubic lattice provides the densest packing of equal spheres with a packing fraction \(\phi\approx0.7405\) \cite{Kepler_Hales}. Here we report on the densest known packings of congruent ellipsoids. The family of new packings are crystal (periodic) arrangements of nearly spherically-shaped ellipsoids, and always surpass the densest lattice packing. A remarkable maximum density of \(\phi\approx0.7707\) is achieved for both prolate and oblate ellipsoids with aspect ratios of \(\sqrt{3}\) and \(1/\sqrt{3}\), respectively, and each ellipsoid has 14 touching neighbors. Present results do not exclude the possibility that even denser crystal packings of ellipsoids could be found, and that a corresponding Kepler-like conjecture could be formulated for ellipsoids.
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          Measurement of dijet angular distributions at sqrt{s}=1.96TeV and searches for quark compositeness and extra spatial dimensions

          We present the first measurement of dijet angular distributions in ppbar collisions at sqrt{s}=1.96TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The measurement is based on a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 0.7fb-1 collected with the D0 detector. Dijet angular distributions have been measured over a range of dijet masses, from 0.25TeV to above 1.1TeV. The data are in good agreement with the predictions of perturbative QCD and are used to constrain new physics models including quark compositeness, large extra dimensions, and TeV-1 scale extra dimensions. For all models we set the most stringent direct limits to date.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Brazil
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            bjp
            Brazilian Journal of Physics
            Braz. J. Phys.
            Sociedade Brasileira de Física (São Paulo )
            1678-4448
            September 2005
            : 35
            : 3a
            : 657-666
            S0103-97332005000400013
            10.1590/S0103-97332005000400013

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            Product
            Product Information: SciELO Brazil
            Categories
            PHYSICS, MULTIDISCIPLINARY

            General physics

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