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      A Solid Ultra Fine Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System (S-SNEDDS) of Deferasirox for Improved Solubility: Optimization, Characterization, and In Vitro Cytotoxicity Studies

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          The research work was designed to develop a solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SNEDDS) of deferasirox (DFX). According to the solubility studies of DFX in different components, Peceol, Kolliphor EL, and Transcutol were selected as excipients. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed, and then SNEDDS formation assessment studies and solubility of DFX in selected SNEDDSs formulations were performed. DFX loaded SNEDDS were prepared and characterized. The optimum DFX-SNEDDS formulations were developed. The relative safety of the optimized SNEDDS formulation was examined in a human immortalized myelogenous leukemia cell line, K562 cells, using the MTT cell viability test. Cytotoxicity studies revealed more cell viability (71.44%) of DFX loaded SNEDDS compared to pure DFX (3.99%) at 40 μM. The selected DFX-SNEDDS formulation was converted into S-SNEDDS by adsorbing into porous carriers, in order to study its dissolution behavior. The in vitro drug release studies indicated that DFX release (Q5%) from S-SNEDDS solidified with Neusilin UFL2 was significantly higher (93.6 ± 0.7% within 5 min) compared with the marketed product (81.65 ± 2.10%). The overall results indicated that the S-SNEDDS formulation of DFX could have the potential to enhance the solubility of DFX, which would in turn have the potential to improve its oral bioavailability as a safe novel delivery system.

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          Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems: formulation insights, applications and advances.

          There has been a resurgence of interest in nanoemulsions for various pharmaceutical applications since low-energy emulsification methods, such as spontaneous or self-nanoemulsification, have been described. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) are anhydrous homogenous liquid mixtures consisting of oil, surfactant, drug and coemulsifier or solubilizer, which spontaneously form oil-in-water nanoemulsion of approximately 200 nm or less in size upon dilution with water under gentle stirring. The physicochemical properties, drug solubilization capacity and physiological fate considerably govern the selection of the SNEDDS components. The composition of the SNEDDS can be optimized with the help of phase diagrams, whereas statistical experimental design can be used to further optimize SNEDDS. SNEDDS can improve oral bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs by several mechanisms. The conversion of liquid SNEDDS to solid oral dosage forms or solid SNEDDS has also been achieved by researchers. Solid SNEDDS can offer better patient compliance and minimize problems associated with capsules filled with liquid SNEDDS.
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            Development of solid self-emulsifying drug delivery systems: preparation techniques and dosage forms.

            Approximately 40% of new chemical entities exhibit poor aqueous solubility and present a major challenge to modern drug delivery system, because of their low bioavailability. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) are usually used to improve the bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs. Conventional SEDDS, however, are mostly prepared in a liquid form, which can produce some disadvantages. Accordingly, solid SEDDS (S-SEDDS), prepared by solidification of liquid/semisolid self-emulsifying (SE) ingredients into powders, have gained popularity. This article gives an overview of the recent advances in the study of S-SEDDS, especially the related solidification techniques and the development of solid SE dosage forms. Finally, the existing problems and the possible future research directions in this field are pointed out.
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              Self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of rosuvastatin calcium: design, formulation, bioavailability and pharmacokinetic evaluation.

              The aim of the present study is to improve solubility and bioavailability of Rosuvastatin calcium using self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS). Self emulsifying property of various oils including essential oils was evaluated with suitable surfactants and co-surfactants. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed based on Rosuvastatin calcium solubility analysis for optimizing the system. The prepared formulations were evaluated for self emulsifying time, robustness to dilution, droplet size determination and zeta potential analysis. The system was found to be robust in different pH media and dilution volume. The globule size of the optimized system was less than 200nm which could be an acceptable nanoemulsion size range. The zeta potential of the selected CN 7 SNEDDS formulation (cinnamon oil 30%; labrasol 60%; Capmul MCM C8 10%) was -29.5±0.63 with an average particle size distribution of 122nm. In vitro drug release studies showed remarkable increase in dissolution of CN7 SNEDDS compared to marketed formulation. In house developed HPLC method for determination of Rosuvastatin calcium in rat plasma was used in the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic evaluation. The relative bioavailability of self nanoemulsified formulation showed an enhanced bioavailability of 2.45 times greater than that of drug in suspension. The obtained plasma drug concentration data was processed with PKSolver 2.0 and it was best fit into the one compartment model.

                Author and article information

                Pharmaceuticals (Basel)
                Pharmaceuticals (Basel)
                24 July 2020
                August 2020
                : 13
                : 8
                [1 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Near East University, Nicosia 99010, Cyprus; alaasami2489@ (A.A.); yildiz.ozalp@ (Y.Ö.)
                [2 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jerash University, Jerash 26150, Jordan
                [3 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Istanbul University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istanbul 34116, Turkey; bmesut@ (B.M.); yozsoy@ (Y.Ö.)
                [4 ]Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Near East University, Nicosia 99010, Cyprus; nedime.serakinci@
                [5 ]Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Art and Sciences Near East University, Nicosia 99010, Cyprus
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: sgungor@ ; Tel.: +90-212-440-00-00 (ext. 13493)
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (



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