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      El portafolio, una herramienta que promueve competencias de responsabilidad y reflexión. Un estudio de caso en estudiantes de primer año de Medicina Veterinaria de la Universidad de Concepción, Chile Translated title: The portfolio, a tool that promotes competences of responsibility and reflection. A case study on first year students of Veterinary Medicine of Universidad de Concepción, Chile

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          Abstract

          RESUMEN Con la finalidad de promover competencias de responsabilidad y reflexión sobre el propio proceso de aprendizaje, se introdujo el uso de portafolio en un curso de primer año en la Universidad de Concepción, Chile. En el estudio participaron 86 estudiantes de los 97 inscritos en el curso. Se realizó una inducción y descripción detallada de los objetivos y metodología al comienzo de la asignatura. Se efectuaron dos evaluaciones sumativas del portafolio durante el semestre, con retroalimentación después de la primera evaluación. Al terminar el curso se aplicó una encuesta de 11 ítems mediante escala Likert de 1 a 5 puntos. Los promedios de las evaluaciones sumativas se compararon mediante una prueba no paramétrica para muestras en pares y la encuesta de percepción se analizó mediante estadística descriptiva. Se observó un aumento significativo (p<0.05) del puntaje entre la primera y segunda evaluación de 5.2 a 6.0 (escala 1 a 7). El promedio del puntaje de satisfacción fue 43.9 (n=54) de un máximo de 55 puntos y la consistencia interna del cuestionario mostró un valor de alfa de Cronbach de 0.83. La promoción de la responsabilidad, la reflexión y el pensamiento crítico, como efecto del uso del portafolio, fueron los ítems del cuestionario mejor valorados por los estudiantes. Los estudiantes, si bien reconocen que la construcción del portafolio significó una carga académica adicional, valoraron positivamente la metodología en el desarrollo de las competencias genéricas.

          Translated abstract

          ABSTRACT The use of a portfolio was introduced in a first-year course at the University of Concepción, Chile to promote competencies of responsibility and reflection on the learning process. In the study participated 86 students out of the 97 in the group. An induction and detailed description of the objectives and methodology was carried out at the beginning of the course. Two summative portfolio evaluations were conducted during the semester, with feedback after the first evaluation. At the end of the course, an 11-item survey was applied using a Likert scale from 1 to 5 points. The averages of the summative evaluations were compared using a non-parametric test for samples in pairs and the perception survey was analysed using descriptive statistics. A significant increase (p<0.05) was observed between the first and second evaluation from 5.2 to 6.0 (scale 1 to 7). The average satisfaction score was 43.9 (n = 54) out of a maximum of 55 points and the internal consistency of the questionnaire showed a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.83. The promotion of responsibility, reflection, and critical thinking, as an effect of the use of the portfolio, were the items on the questionnaire that were best valued by the students. The students, while recognizing that the construction of the portfolio meant an additional academic burden, positively valued the methodology in the development of generic competences.

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          Una aproximación teórica al uso del portafolio en la enseñanza, el aprendizaje y la evaluación

          En este artículo se presentan orientaciones para la elaboración del portafolio del profesor y del estudiante. Se señalan elementos que podrían incluirse en ambos, pero éstos pueden variar dependiendo de la naturaleza de la asignatura y del propósito para el cual se elabora. Utilizado como instrumento de autoevaluación para el docente, el portafolio le permite mejorar su actuación en el aula y, en el caso de los estudiantes, facilita apreciar el proceso de aprendizaje, a través de la revisión permanente y conjunta con el docente de los trabajos que se seleccionan para incluir en el mismo.
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            Conditions for successful reflective use of portfolios in undergraduate medical education.

            Portfolios are often used as an instrument with which to stimulate students to reflect on their experiences. Research has shown that working with portfolios does not automatically stimulate reflection. In this study we addressed the question: What are the conditions for successful reflective use of portfolios in undergraduate medical education? METHODOLOGY/RESEARCH DESIGN: We designed a portfolio that was aimed at stimulating reflection in early undergraduate medical education, using experiences described in the medical education literature and elsewhere. Conditions for reflective portfolio use were identified through interviews with 13 teachers (mentors), who were experienced in mentoring students in the process of developing their portfolios. The interviews were analysed according to the principles of grounded theory. The conditions for successful reflective use of portfolios that emerged from the interviews fell into 4 categories: coaching; portfolio structure and guidelines; relevant experiences and materials, and summative assessment. According to the mentors, working with a portfolio designed to meet these conditions will stimulate students' reflective abilities. This study shows that portfolios are a potentially valuable method of assessing and developing students' reflective skills in undergraduate medical training, provided certain conditions for effective portfolios are recognised and met. Portfolios have a strong potential for enhancing learning and assessment but they are very vulnerable and may easily lead to disappointment. Before implementing portfolios in education, one should first consider whether the necessary conditions can be fulfilled, including an appropriate portfolio structure, an appropriate assessment procedure, the provision of enough new experiences and materials, and sufficient teacher capacity for adequate coaching and assessment.
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              Student perceptions of a portfolio assessment process

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rivep
                Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú
                Rev. investig. vet. Perú
                Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria (Lima, , Peru )
                1609-9117
                July 2020
                : 31
                : 3
                Affiliations
                Bío-Bío orgnameUniversidad de Concepción orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias orgdiv2Departamento de Ciencias Clínicas Chile
                Bío-Bío orgnameUniversidad de Concepción orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias orgdiv2Oficina de Educación Médico Veterinaria Chile
                Bío-Bío orgnameUniversidad de Concepción orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias orgdiv2Departamento de Patología y Medicina Preventiva Chile
                orgnameUniversidad del Bío-Bío orgdiv1Facultad de Educación y Humanidades orgdiv2Departamento de Ciencias de la Educación Chile
                Bío-Bío orgnameUniversidad de Concepción orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias orgdiv2Departamento de Ciencia Animal Chile
                Article
                S1609-91172020000300066 S1609-9117(20)03100300066
                10.15381/rivep.v31i3.16673

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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