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      Examining the relationship between anxiety and depression and exacerbations of COPD which result in hospital admission: a systematic review

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          Abstract

          Objectives

          Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are the third largest cause of emergency hospital admissions in the UK. This systematic literature review explored the relationship between the hospitalization rates and the COPD comorbidities, anxiety, and depression.

          Methods

          The Centre for Research Dissemination’s framework for systematic reviews was followed using search terms relating to COPD, anxiety, depression, and hospital admission. Papers identified were assessed for relevance and quality, using a suitable Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool and Mixed Methods Assessment Tool.

          Results

          Twenty quantitative studies indicated that anxiety and depression led to a statistically significant increase in the likelihood of COPD patients being hospitalized. These comorbidities also led to an increased length of stay and a greater risk of mortality postdischarge. Other significant factors included lower Body-Mass Index, Airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise scores, female gender, lower socioeconomic status, poorer patient perceived quality of life, increased severity of lung function, and less improvement in dyspnea from admission to discharge. It was also highlighted that only 27%–33% of those with depression were being treated for it. Four qualitative studies revealed that patients saw anxiety and depression as a major factor that affected their ability to cope with and self-manage their condition.

          Implications

          Findings from the systematic review have highlighted a need for better recognition and treatment of anxiety and depression amongst individuals with COPD. Ongoing research will develop and test strategies for promoting better management and self-management as a means of reducing hospital admissions.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause 1990–2020: Global Burden of Disease Study

          Plausible projections of future mortality and disability are a useful aid in decisions on priorities for health research, capital investment, and training. Rates and patterns of ill health are determined by factors such as socioeconomic development, educational attainment, technological developments, and their dispersion among populations, as well as exposure to hazards such as tobacco. As part of the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD), we developed three scenarios of future mortality and disability for different age-sex groups, causes, and regions. We used the most important disease and injury trends since 1950 in nine cause-of-death clusters. Regression equations for mortality rates for each cluster by region were developed from gross domestic product per person (in international dollars), average number of years of education, time (in years, as a surrogate for technological change), and smoking intensity, which shows the cumulative effects based on data for 47 countries in 1950-90. Optimistic, pessimistic, and baseline projections of the independent variables were made. We related mortality from detailed causes to mortality from a cause cluster to project more detailed causes. Based on projected numbers of deaths by cause, years of life lived with disability (YLDs) were projected from different relation models of YLDs to years of life lost (YLLs). Population projections were prepared from World Bank projections of fertility and the projected mortality rates. Life expectancy at birth for women was projected to increase in all three scenarios; in established market economies to about 90 years by 2020. Far smaller gains in male life expectancy were projected than in females; in formerly socialist economies of Europe, male life expectancy may not increase at all. Worldwide mortality from communicable maternal, perinatal, and nutritional disorders was expected to decline in the baseline scenario from 17.2 million deaths in 1990 to 10.3 million in 2020. We projected that non-communicable disease mortality will increase from 28.1 million deaths in 1990 to 49.7 million in 2020. Deaths from injury may increase from 5.1 million to 8.4 million. Leading causes of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) predicted by the baseline model were (in descending order): ischaemic heart disease, unipolar major depression, road-traffic accidents, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lower respiratory infections, tuberculosis, war injuries, diarrhoeal diseases, and HIV. Tobacco-attributable mortality is projected to increase from 3.0 million deaths in 1990 to 8.4 million deaths in 2020. Health trends in the next 25 years will be determined mainly by the ageing of the world's population, the decline in age-specific mortality rates from communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional disorders, the spread of HIV, and the increase in tobacco-related mortality and disability. Projections, by their nature, are highly uncertain, but we found some robust results with implications for health policy.
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            Relationship of depression and diabetes self-care, medication adherence, and preventive care.

            We assessed whether diabetes self-care, medication adherence, and use of preventive services were associated with depressive illness. In a large health maintenance organization, 4,463 patients with diabetes completed a questionnaire assessing self-care, diabetes monitoring, and depression. Automated diagnostic, laboratory, and pharmacy data were used to assess glycemic control, medication adherence, and preventive services. This predominantly type 2 diabetic population had a mean HbA(1c) level of 7.8 +/- 1.6%. Three-quarters of the patients received hypoglycemic agents (oral or insulin) and reported at least weekly self-monitoring of glucose and foot checks. The mean number of HbA(1c) tests was 2.2 +/- 1.3 per year and was only slightly higher among patients with poorly controlled diabetes. Almost one-half (48.9%) had a BMI >30 kg/m(2), and 47.8% of patients exercised once a week or less. Pharmacy refill data showed a 19.5% nonadherence rate to oral hypoglycemic medicines (mean 67.4 +/- 74.1 days) in the prior year. Major depression was associated with less physical activity, unhealthy diet, and lower adherence to oral hypoglycemic, antihypertensive, and lipid-lowering medications. In contrast, preventive care of diabetes, including home-glucose tests, foot checks, screening for microalbuminuria, and retinopathy was similar among depressed and nondepressed patients. In a primary care population, diabetes self-care was suboptimal across a continuum from home-based activities, such as healthy eating, exercise, and medication adherence, to use of preventive care. Major depression was mainly associated with patient-initiated behaviors that are difficult to maintain (e.g., exercise, diet, medication adherence) but not with preventive services for diabetes.
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              Depression and diabetes: impact of depressive symptoms on adherence, function, and costs.

              Depression is common among patients with chronic medical illness. We explored the impact of depressive symptoms in primary care patients with diabetes on diabetes self-care, adherence to medication regimens, functioning, and health care costs. We administered a questionnaire to 367 patients with types 1 and 2 diabetes from 2 health maintenance organization primary care clinics to obtain data on demographics, depressive symptoms, diabetes knowledge, functioning, and diabetes self-care. On the basis of automated data, we measured medical comorbidity, health care costs, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) levels, and oral hypoglycemic prescription refills. Using depressive symptom severity tertiles (low, medium, or high), we performed regression analyses to determine the impact of depressive symptoms on adherence to diabetes self-care and oral hypoglycemic regimens, HbA(1c) levels, functional impairment, and health care costs. Compared with patients in the low-severity depression symptom tertile, those in the medium- and high-severity tertiles were significantly less adherent to dietary recommendations. Patients in the high-severity tertile were significantly distinct from those in the low-severity tertile by having a higher percentage of days in nonadherence to oral hypoglycemic regimens (15% vs 7%); poorer physical and mental functioning; greater probability of having any emergency department, primary care, specialty care, medical inpatient, and mental health costs; and among users of health care within categories, higher primary (51% higher), ambulatory (75% higher), and total health care costs (86% higher). Depressive symptom severity is associated with poorer diet and medication regimen adherence, functional impairment, and higher health care costs in primary care diabetic patients. Further studies testing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of enhanced models of care of diabetic patients with depression are needed. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:3278-3285.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2014
                29 March 2014
                : 9
                : 315-330
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Nursing and Midwifery, Clinical Education Centre, University Hospital of North Staffordshire NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent, UK
                [2 ]Health Services Research, Research Institute of Primary Care and Health Sciences, Keele University, Keele, UK
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Alison Pooler, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Research Institute of Primary Care and Health Sciences, Clinical Education Centre, University Hospital of North Staffordshire NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent, ST4 6QG, UK, Tel +44 1782 679 659, Email a.pooler@ 123456keele.ac.uk
                Article
                copd-9-315
                10.2147/COPD.S53255
                3974694
                24729698
                © 2014 Pooler and Beech. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Respiratory medicine

                copd, hospital admissions, anxiety, depression, exacerbations

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