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      Current Status of Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibition Strategies in the Treatment of Vasculitis

      Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

      S. Karger AG

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          Most cited references 12

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          A short-term study of chimeric monoclonal antibody cA2 to tumor necrosis factor alpha for Crohn's disease. Crohn's Disease cA2 Study Group.

          Studies in animals and an open-label trial have suggested a role for antibodies to tumor necrosis factor alpha, specifically chimeric monoclonal antibody cA2, in the treatment of Crohn's disease. We conducted a 12-week multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of cA2 in 108 patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease that was resistant to treatment. All had scores on the Crohn's Disease Activity Index between 220 and 400 (scores can range from 0 to about 600, with higher scores indicating more severe illness). Patients were randomly assigned to receive a single two-hour intravenous infusion of either placebo or cA2 in a dose of 5 mg per kilogram of body weight, 10 mg per kilogram, or 20 mg per kilogram. Clinical response, the primary end point, was defined as a reduction of 70 or more points in the score on the Crohn's Disease Activity Index at four weeks that was not accompanied by a change in any concomitant medications. At four weeks, 81 percent of the patients given 5 mg of cA2 per kilogram (22 of 27 patients), 50 percent of those given 10 mg of cA2 per kilogram (14 of 28), and 64 percent of those given 20 mg of cA2 per kilogram (18 of 28) had had a clinical response, as compared with 17 percent of patients in the placebo group (4 of 24) (p<0.001 for the comparison of the cA2 group as a whole with placebo). Thirty-three percent of the patients given cA2 went into remission (defined as a score below 150 on the Crohn's Disease Activity Index), as compared with 4 percent of the patients given placebo (P=0.005). At 12 weeks, 41 percent of the cA2-treated patients (34 of 83) had had a clinical response, as compared with 12 percent of the patients in the placebo group (3 of 25) (P=0.008). The rates of adverse effects were similar in the groups. A single infusion of cA2 was an effective short-term treatment in many patients with moderate-to-severe, treatment-resistant Crohn's disease.
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            Randomised double-blind comparison of chimeric monoclonal antibody to tumour necrosis factor α (cA2) versus placebo in rheumatoid arthritis

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              Tumor necrosis factor antagonist therapy and lymphoma development: twenty-six cases reported to the Food and Drug Administration.

              Etanercept and infliximab are tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists that have been recently approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Crohn's disease (CD). This study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of lymphoproliferative disorders in patients treated with these agents. Relevant data in the MedWatch postmarket adverse event surveillance system run by the US Food and Drug Administration were reviewed. We identified 26 cases of lymphoproliferative disorders following treatment with etanercept (18 cases) or infliximab (8 cases). The majority of cases (81%) were non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The interval between initiation of therapy with etanercept or infliximab and the development of lymphoma was very short (median 8 weeks). In 2 instances (1 infliximab, 1 etanercept), lymphoma regression was observed following discontinuation of anti-TNF treatment, in the absence of specific cytotoxic therapy directed toward the lymphoma. Although data from a case series such as this cannot establish a clear causal relationship between exposure to these medications and the risk of lymphoproliferative disease, the known predisposition of patients with RA and CD to lymphoma, the known excess of lymphoma in other immunosuppressed populations, and the known immunosuppressive effects of the anti-TNF drugs provide a biologic basis for concern and justification for the initiation of additional epidemiologic studies to formally evaluate this possible association.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2003
                2003
                24 September 2003
                : 26
                : 4
                : 240-248
                Affiliations
                Division of Rheumatology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md., USA
                Article
                72991 Kidney Blood Press Res 2003;26:240–248
                10.1159/000072991
                14504424
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 1, References: 64, Pages: 9
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/72991
                Categories
                Short Review

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

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