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The generation of new neurons is sustained throughout adulthood in the mammalian brain
due to the proliferation and differentiation of adult neural stem cells. In this review,
we discuss the factors that regulate proliferation and fate determination of adult
neural stem cells and describe recent studies concerning the integration of newborn
neurons into the existing neural circuitry. We further address the potential significance
of adult neurogenesis in memory, depression, and neurodegenerative disorders such
as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.