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      Assessment of iodine nutrition in pregnant north Indian subjects in three trimesters

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          Abstract

          Objective:

          The cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the iodine status of pregnant women, using median urinary iodine concentration (MUI) as the measure of outcome, to document the impact of advancing gestation on the MUI in normal pregnancy.

          Materials and Methods:

          The present study assessed the MUI in casual urine samples from 50 pregnant subjects of each trimester and 50 age-matched non-pregnant controls.

          Results:

          The median (range) of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in pregnant women was 304 (102-859) μg/L and only 2% of the subjects had prevalence of values under 150 μg/L (iodine insufficiency). With regard to the study cohort, median (range) UIC in the first, second, and third trimesters was 285 (102-457), 318 (102-805), and 304 (172-859) μg/L, respectively. Differences between the first, second, and third trimesters were not statistically significant. The MUI in the controls (305 μg/L) was not statistically different from the study cohort.

          Conclusion:

          The pregnant women had no iodine deficiency, rather had high median urinary iodine concentrations indicating more than adequate iodine intake. Larger community-based studies are required in iodine-sufficient populations, to establish gestation-appropriate reference ranges for UIC in pregnancy.

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          Most cited references 32

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          The regulation of thyroid function in pregnancy: pathways of endocrine adaptation from physiology to pathology.

           D Glinoer (1997)
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            High prevalence of undetected thyroid disorders in an iodine sufficient adult south Indian population.

            India is in the transition phase from iodine deficiency to iodine sufficiency, and this is expected to change the thyroid status of the population. The thyroid status and auto-immune status of adult Indian population in the postiodisation phase is largelyunknown, and this study was conducted to answer this question. A cross-sectional population survey was conducted in two phases among the residents of urban coastal area of central Kerala. The initial phase included a house-to-house survey of 3069 adults (>18 years of age), selected by cluster sampling method. From the surveyed population, 986 subjects underwent further physical examination and biochemical evaluation for thyroid function, thyroid autoimmunity status and iodine status. The total prevalence of goitre was 12.2% and median urine iodine excretion was 211.4 mcg/l (mean 220.3 +/- 99.5 mcg/l) indicating iodine sufficiency. Thyroid function abnormalities were present in 19.6% of subjects. Subclinical hypothyroidism was present in 9.4%. Among the population with normal thyroid function, 9.5% and 8.5% respectively had positive anti-TPO and anti-TG antibodies. Among those with thyroid dysfunction, 46.3% had positive anti-TPO and 26.8% were anti-TG positive. A significant proportion of this iodine-sufficient adult population had thyroid disorders. Further studies are required to characterise the reasons for this high prevalence. Iodine deficiency as well as thyroid dysfunction should both be the focus of public health strategies in susceptible populations.
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              The regulation of thyroid function during normal pregnancy: importance of the iodine nutrition status.

              The main change in thyroid function associated with the pregnant state is the requirement of an increased production of thyroid hormone that depends directly upon the adequate availability of dietary iodine and integrity of the glandular machinery. Physiologic adaptation takes place when the iodine intake is adequate, while this is replaced by pathologic alterations when there is a deficient iodine intake. Pregnancy acts typically, therefore, as a revelator of underlying iodine restriction. Iodine deficiency (ID) has important repercussions for both the mother and the fetus, leading to sustained glandular stimulation, hypothyroxinemia and goitrogenesis. Furthermore, because severe ID may be associated with an impairment in the psycho-neuro-intellectual outcome in the progeny-because both mother and offspring are exposed to ID during gestation (and the postnatal period), and because ID is still prevalent today in several European countries-it has been proposed already in the early 1990s that iodine supplements be given systematically to pregnant and breast-feeding women. Particular attention is required to ensure that pregnant women receive an adequate iodine supply, by administering multivitamin tablets containing iodine supplements, in order to achieve the ideal recommended dietary allowance of 200-250 microg iodine/day.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Dr. Emmy Grewal, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. E-mail: emmygrewal@ 123456yahoo.com
                Journal
                Indian J Endocrinol Metab
                Indian J Endocrinol Metab
                IJEM
                Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                2230-8210
                2230-9500
                Mar-Apr 2013
                : 17
                : 2
                : 289-293
                23776905
                3683207
                IJEM-17-289
                10.4103/2230-8210.109716
                Copyright: © Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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