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      Effects of Phytoestrogen Extracts Isolated from Rye, Green and Yellow Pea Seeds on Hormone Production and Proliferation of Trophoblast Tumor Cells Jeg3

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          Abstract

          Background: Phytoestrogens are a diverse group of non-steroidal plant compounds. Because they have chemical structures similar to estrogens they are able to bind on estrogen receptors in humans. Objectives: In this study, we tested the effects of crude phytoestrogen extracts from rye (Secale cereale), green pea (Pisum sativum) and yellow pea seeds ( Pisum sativum cv.) on cell proliferation and the production of progesterone in trophoblast tumor cells of the cell line Jeg3. Methods: Isoflavone extracts from green and yellow pea seeds and lignan extracts from rye seeds were obtained, using different extraction methods. Isolated extracts were incubated in different concentrations with trophoblast tumor cells. Untreated cells were used as controls. At designated times, aliquots were removed and tested for estradiol and progesterone production. In addition, we tested the effects of the phytoestrogen extracts on cell proliferation. Results: Cell proliferation is significantly inhibited by potential phytoestrogens isolated from rye, green and yellow pea seeds in trophoblast tumor cells of the cell line Jeg3. We found a correlation between the effects of proliferation and production of estradiol in isoflavone extracts from green and yellow pea seeds in Jeg3 cells. In addition, higher concentrations of isoflavones isolated from green pea seeds and lignans from rye showed also a inhibition of progesterone production whereas higher concentrations of rye lignans elevated estradiol production in Jeg3 cells. Conclusion: A useful indicator test system for potential phytoestrogens could be established. Based on the obtained results it is proposed that green and yellow pea seeds contain measurable concentrations of isoflavones and rye seeds contain lignans which can be isolated and used for special human diet programs.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Inhibition of human aromatase by mammalian lignans and isoflavonoid phytoestrogens.

          Isoflavonoid phytoestrogens and lignans in plants are known to be constituents of animal and human food and recently they have been found in human urine and other biological materials. These compounds have received increasing attention because of their interesting biological properties and possible role in human cancer and other diseases. The present study demonstrates that the main mammalian lignan enterolactone (trans-2,3-bis[(3-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-butyrolactone) and some other diphenols are moderate or weak inhibitors of human estrogen synthetase (aromatase) and that this lignan binds to or near the substrate region of the active site of the P-450 enzyme. The inhibition is competitive with respect to testosterone and androstenedione, and the lignan affinity is 1/75-1/300 that of these natural substrates. It is suggested that the high concentration of lignans in vegetarians, by inhibiting aromatase in peripheral and/or cancer cells and lowering estrogen levels, may play a protective role as antipromotional compounds during growth of estrogen-dependent cancers.
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            Phytoestrogens: epidemiology and a possible role in cancer protection.

             H Adlercreutz (1995)
            Because many diseases of the Western Hemisphere are hormone-dependent cancers, we have postulated that the Western diet, compared to a vegetarian or semivegetarian diet, may alter hormone production, metabolism, or action at the cellular level by some biochemical mechanisms. Recently, our interest has been mainly focused on the cancer-protective role of some hormonelike diphenolic phytoestrogens of dietary origin, the lignans and the isoflavonoids. The precursors of the biologically active compounds originate in soybean products (mainly isoflavonoids), whole grain cereal food, seeds, and probably berries and nuts (mainly lignans). The plant lignan and isoflavonoid glycosides are converted by intestinal bacteria to hormonelike compounds with weak estrogenic but also antioxidative activity; they have now been shown to influence not only sex hormone metabolism and biological activity but also intracellular enzymes, protein synthesis, growth factor action, malignant cell proliferation, differentiation, and angiogenesis in a way that makes them strong candidates for a role as natural cancer-protective compounds. Epidemiologic investigations strongly support this hypothesis because the highest levels of these compounds in the diet are found in countries or regions with low cancer incidence. This report is a review on recent results suggesting that the diphenolic isoflavonoids and lignans are natural cancer-protective compounds.
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              A review of the evidence for the use of phytoestrogens as a replacement for traditional estrogen replacement therapy.

              Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is recommended for postmenopausal women primarily for reduction of menopausal symptoms and prevention of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. However, only 35% to 40% of women ever start ERT, and many do not continue it. One of the reasons women are reluctant to receive postmenopausal ERT is that they perceive prescription estrogens as being "unnatural." Because of this, there is increasing interest in the use of plant-derived estrogens, also known as phytoestrogens. This article reviews the evidence for the potential of phytoestrogens, either in dietary or supplemental form, to replace traditional forms of ERT. A comprehensive search of the English-language literature identified more than 1000 articles published in the past 30 years about phytoestrogens. In total, 74 studies were selected for inclusion in this review based on relevance, inclusion of human subjects wherever possible, and study design. The studies examine phytoestrogens' inhibition of the growth of cancer cell lines in vitro and in animals. They also look at the role of phytoestrogens in the reduction of cholesterol levels, and the use of one phytoestrogen derivative, ipriflavone, in the prevention of osteoporosis. Some small studies examine the role of phytoestrogens in the prevention of menopausal symptoms. Evidence for the potential health benefits of phytoestrogens is increasing. However, the clinically proven health benefits of prescribed ERT far outweigh those of phytoestrogens. Therefore, there is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of phytoestrogens in place of traditional ERT, or to make recommendations to women about specific phytoestrogen products.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2006
                June 2006
                09 June 2006
                : 65
                : 6
                : 276-288
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Biological Sciences, University of Rostock, Rostock, bFirst Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, Departments of cObstetrics and Gynaecology and dTechnical Chemistry, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
                Article
                92591 Horm Res 2006;65:276–288
                10.1159/000092591
                16612104
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 11, References: 46, Pages: 13
                Categories
                Original Paper

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