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      Functionalized Electrospun Nanofibers as a Versatile Platform for Colorimetric Detection of Heavy Metal Ions in Water: A Review

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          Abstract

          The increasing heavy metal pollution in the aquatic ecosystem mainly driven by industrial activities has raised severe concerns over human and environmental health that apparently necessitate the design and development of ideal strategies for the effective monitoring of heavy metals. In this regard, colorimetric detection provides excellent opportunities for the easy monitoring of heavy metal ions, and especially, corresponding solid-state sensors enable potential opportunities for their applicability in real-world monitoring. As a result of the significant interest originating from their simplicity, exceptional characteristics, and applicability, the electrospun nanofiber-based colorimetric detection of heavy metal ions has undergone radical developments in the recent decade. This review illustrates the range of various approaches and functional molecules employed in the fabrication of electrospun nanofibers intended for the colorimetric detection of various metal ions in water. We highlight relevant investigations on the fabrication of functionalized electrospun nanofibers encompassing different approaches and functional molecules along with their sensing performance. Furthermore, we discuss upcoming prospectus and future opportunities in the exploration of designing electrospun nanofiber-based colorimetric sensors for real-world applications.

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          Most cited references 136

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          The neurobiology of zinc in health and disease.

          The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the pantheon of signal ions in biology and medicine. However, the number of biological functions, health implications and pharmacological targets that are emerging for zinc indicate that it might turn out to be 'the calcium of the twenty-first century'.
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            Review on iron and its importance for human health

            It is well-known that deficiency or over exposure to various elements has noticeable effects on human health. The effect of an element is determined by several characteristics, including absorption, metabolism, and degree of interaction with physiological processes. Iron is an essential element for almost all living organisms as it participates in a wide variety of metabolic processes, including oxygen transport, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis, and electron transport. However, as iron can form free radicals, its concentration in body tissues must be tightly regulated because in excessive amounts, it can lead to tissue damage. Disorders of iron metabolism are among the most common diseases of humans and encompass a broad spectrum of diseases with diverse clinical manifestations, ranging from anemia to iron overload, and possibly to neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss the latest progress in studies of iron metabolism and bioavailability, and our current understanding of human iron requirement and consequences and causes of iron deficiency. Finally, we discuss strategies for prevention of iron deficiency.
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              The role of zinc in selective neuronal death after transient global cerebral ischemia.

              Zinc is present in presynaptic nerve terminals throughout the mammalian central nervous system and likely serves as an endogenous signaling substance. However, excessive exposure to extracellular zinc can damage central neurons. After transient forebrain ischemia in rats, chelatable zinc accumulated specifically in degenerating neurons in the hippocampal hilus and CA1, as well as in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, striatum, and amygdala. This accumulation preceded neurodegeneration, which could be prevented by the intraventricular injection of a zinc chelating agent. The toxic influx of zinc may be a key mechanism underlying selective neuronal death after transient global ischemic insults.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Materials (Basel)
                Materials (Basel)
                materials
                Materials
                MDPI
                1996-1944
                25 May 2020
                May 2020
                : 13
                : 10
                Affiliations
                Department of Fiber Science & Apparel Design, College of Human Ecology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
                Author notes
                Article
                materials-13-02421
                10.3390/ma13102421
                7288479
                32466258
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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