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      Sirt1 ablation promotes stress-induced loss of epigenetic and genomic hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell maintenance

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          Abstract

          Loss of Sirt1 causes increased Hoxa9 expression and expansion of HSPC subsets under hematopoietic stress, resulting in increased DNA damage and exhaustion of long-term progenitors.

          Abstract

          The (histone) deacetylase Sirt1 is a mediator of genomic and epigenetic maintenance, both of which are critical aspects of stem cell homeostasis and tightly linked to their functional decline in aging and disease. We show that Sirt1 ablation in adult hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) promotes aberrant HSPC expansion specifically under conditions of hematopoietic stress, which is associated with genomic instability as well as the accumulation of DNA damage and eventually results in a loss of long-term progenitors. We further demonstrate that progenitor cell expansion is mechanistically linked to the selective up-regulation of the HSPC maintenance factor and polycomb target gene Hoxa9. We show that Sirt1 binds to the Hoxa9 gene, counteracts acetylation of its histone target H4 lysine 16, and in turn promotes polycomb-specific repressive histone modification. Together, these findings demonstrate a dual role for Sirt1 in HSPC homeostasis, both via epigenetic regulation of a key developmental gene and by promoting genome stability in adult stem cells.

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          Most cited references 52

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          Mammalian sirtuins: biological insights and disease relevance.

          Aging is accompanied by a decline in the healthy function of multiple organ systems, leading to increased incidence and mortality from diseases such as type II diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Historically, researchers have focused on investigating individual pathways in isolated organs as a strategy to identify the root cause of a disease, with hopes of designing better drugs. Studies of aging in yeast led to the discovery of a family of conserved enzymes known as the sirtuins, which affect multiple pathways that increase the life span and the overall health of organisms. Since the discovery of the first known mammalian sirtuin, SIRT1, 10 years ago, there have been major advances in our understanding of the enzymology of sirtuins, their regulation, and their ability to broadly improve mammalian physiology and health span. This review summarizes and discusses the advances of the past decade and the challenges that will confront the field in the coming years.
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            Negative control of p53 by Sir2alpha promotes cell survival under stress.

            The NAD-dependent histone deacetylation of Sir2 connects cellular metabolism with gene silencing as well as aging in yeast. Here, we show that mammalian Sir2alpha physically interacts with p53 and attenuates p53-mediated functions. Nicotinamide (Vitamin B3) inhibits an NAD-dependent p53 deacetylation induced by Sir2alpha, and also enhances the p53 acetylation levels in vivo. Furthermore, Sir2alpha represses p53-dependent apoptosis in response to DNA damage and oxidative stress, whereas expression of a Sir2alpha point mutant increases the sensitivity of cells in the stress response. Thus, our findings implicate a p53 regulatory pathway mediated by mammalian Sir2alpha. These results have significant implications regarding an important role for Sir2alpha in modulating the sensitivity of cells in p53-dependent apoptotic response and the possible effect in cancer therapy.
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              Bmi-1 is required for maintenance of adult self-renewing haematopoietic stem cells.

              A central issue in stem cell biology is to understand the mechanisms that regulate the self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are required for haematopoiesis to persist for the lifetime of the animal. We found that adult and fetal mouse and adult human HSCs express the proto-oncogene Bmi-1. The number of HSCs in the fetal liver of Bmi-1-/- mice was normal. In postnatal Bmi-1-/- mice, the number of HSCs was markedly reduced. Transplanted fetal liver and bone marrow cells obtained from Bmi-1-/- mice were able to contribute only transiently to haematopoiesis. There was no detectable self-renewal of adult HSCs, indicating a cell autonomous defect in Bmi-1-/- mice. A gene expression analysis revealed that the expression of stem cell associated genes, cell survival genes, transcription factors, and genes modulating proliferation including p16Ink4a and p19Arf was altered in bone marrow cells of the Bmi-1-/- mice. Expression of p16Ink4a and p19Arf in normal HSCs resulted in proliferative arrest and p53-dependent cell death, respectively. Our results indicate that Bmi-1 is essential for the generation of self-renewing adult HSCs.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Exp Med
                J. Exp. Med
                jem
                The Journal of Experimental Medicine
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0022-1007
                1540-9538
                6 May 2013
                : 210
                : 5
                : 987-1001
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Mouse Cancer Genetics Program , [2 ]Laboratory of Cancer Prevention, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., Frederick National Laboratory, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702
                Author notes
                CORRESPONDENCE Philipp Oberdoerffer: oberdoerfferp@ 123456mail.nih.gov

                P. Oberdoerffer’s present address is Laboratory of Receptor Biology and Gene Expression, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892.

                Article
                20121608
                10.1084/jem.20121608
                3646499
                23630229
                © 2013 Singh et al.

                This article is distributed under the terms of an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike–No Mirror Sites license for the first six months after the publication date (see http://www.rupress.org/terms). After six months it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license, as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).

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