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      Biodiversity’s contributions to sustainable development

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          Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products: A review

          Medicinal plants have historically proven their value as a source of molecules with therapeutic potential, and nowadays still represent an important pool for the identification of novel drug leads. In the past decades, pharmaceutical industry focused mainly on libraries of synthetic compounds as drug discovery source. They are comparably easy to produce and resupply, and demonstrate good compatibility with established high throughput screening (HTS) platforms. However, at the same time there has been a declining trend in the number of new drugs reaching the market, raising renewed scientific interest in drug discovery from natural sources, despite of its known challenges. In this survey, a brief outline of historical development is provided together with a comprehensive overview of used approaches and recent developments relevant to plant-derived natural product drug discovery. Associated challenges and major strengths of natural product-based drug discovery are critically discussed. A snapshot of the advanced plant-derived natural products that are currently in actively recruiting clinical trials is also presented. Importantly, the transition of a natural compound from a “screening hit” through a “drug lead” to a “marketed drug” is associated with increasingly challenging demands for compound amount, which often cannot be met by re-isolation from the respective plant sources. In this regard, existing alternatives for resupply are also discussed, including different biotechnology approaches and total organic synthesis. While the intrinsic complexity of natural product-based drug discovery necessitates highly integrated interdisciplinary approaches, the reviewed scientific developments, recent technological advances, and research trends clearly indicate that natural products will be among the most important sources of new drugs also in the future.
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            Promoting ecosystem and human health in urban areas using Green Infrastructure: A literature review

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              Twenty years of ecosystem services: How far have we come and how far do we still need to go?

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Sustainability
                Nat Sustain
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                2398-9629
                December 2019
                November 25 2019
                December 2019
                : 2
                : 12
                : 1083-1093
                Article
                10.1038/s41893-019-0417-9
                f167c0d2-2578-471e-8801-304998c1cf80
                © 2019

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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