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      The Singapore impaired glucose tolerance follow-up study: does the ticking clock go backward as well as forward?

      Diabetes Care

      Adult, Blood Pressure, Cardiovascular Diseases, epidemiology, Cholesterol, HDL, blood, Cross-Sectional Studies, Diabetes Mellitus, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Glucose Intolerance, Humans, Hypertriglyceridemia, Insulin Resistance, Male, Middle Aged, Obesity, Risk Factors, Singapore

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          To 1). document the change in glucose tolerance for subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) over time, 2). identify baseline factors associated with worsening of glucose tolerance, and 3). determine whether cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors associated with IGT improved in tandem with glucose tolerance. Subjects with IGT and NGT (matched for age, sex, and ethnic group) were identified from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 1992. Subjects with IGT (297) and NGT (298) (65.0%) were reexamined in 2000. Glucose tolerance (assessed by 75-g oral glucose tolerance test), anthropometric data, serum lipids, blood pressure, and insulin resistance were determined at baseline and at the follow-up examination. For NGT subjects, 14.0% progressed to IGT and 4.3% to diabetes over 8 years. For IGT subjects, 41.4% reverted to NGT, 23.0% remained impaired glucose tolerant, and 35.1% developed diabetes. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, higher blood pressure, increased insulin resistance, and lower HDL cholesterol at baseline were associated with worsening of glucose tolerance in both IGT and NGT subjects. Those with IGT who reverted to NGT remained more obese and had higher blood pressure than those with NGT in both 1992 and 2000. However, serum triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, and insulin resistance values in 2000 became indistinguishable from those of subjects who maintained NGT throughout the study period. Some, but not all, CVD risk factors associated with IGT and with the risk of future diabetes normalize when glucose tolerance normalizes. Continued surveillance and treatment in subjects with IGT, even after they revert to NGT, may be important in the prevention of CVD.

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