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      Local and landscape drivers of biodiversity of four groups of ants in coffee landscapes

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          Most cited references 52

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          Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs.

          The commonly observed high diversity of trees in tropical rain forests and corals on tropical reefs is a nonequilibrium state which, if not disturbed further, will progress toward a low-diversity equilibrium community. This may not happen if gradual changes in climate favor different species. If equilibrium is reached, a lesser degree of diversity may be sustained by niche diversification or by a compensatory mortality that favors inferior competitors. However, tropical forests and reefs are subject to severe disturbances often enough that equilibrium may never be attained.
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            Quantifying biodiversity: procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness

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              Explaining the abundance of ants in lowland tropical rainforest canopies.

              The extraordinary abundance of ants in tropical rainforest canopies has led to speculation that numerous arboreal ant taxa feed principally as "herbivores" of plant and insect exudates. Based on nitrogen (N) isotope ratios of plants, known herbivores, arthropod predators, and ants from Amazonia and Borneo, we find that many arboreal ant species obtain little N through predation and scavenging. Microsymbionts of ants and their hemipteran trophobionts might play key roles in the nutrition of taxa specializing on N-poor exudates. For plants, the combined costs of biotic defenses and herbivory by ants and tended Hemiptera are substantial, and forest losses to insect herbivores vastly exceed current estimates.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biodiversity and Conservation
                Biodivers Conserv
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0960-3115
                1572-9710
                April 2013
                March 12 2013
                April 2013
                : 22
                : 4
                : 871-888
                Article
                10.1007/s10531-013-0454-z
                © 2013

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