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      10 kHz Spinal Cord Stimulation for Combined Alleviation of Post-Laminectomy Syndrome and Chronic Abdominal Pain: A Case Report

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          Chronic pain affects roughly 50 million Americans, or 20.4% of the national population, and is a huge economic burden on society. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a cost-effective interventional treatment modality for patients with chronic neuropathic and radicular pain. It is traditionally reserved for patients suffering from post-laminectomy syndrome, complex regional pain syndrome, or chronic back pain that is refractory to other less invasive techniques. There have been a few cases describing the use of SCS at higher levels to successfully obtain coverage of visceral abdominal pain. Here we describe an interesting case of a patient who suffered from chronic back pain and radiculopathy with post-laminectomy syndrome as well as chronic abdominal pain. We describe the use of high-frequency SCS to alleviate the patient’s post-laminectomy pain as well as his abdominal pain. Our case describes SCS use with multi-level lead placement targeting both post-laminectomy pain and abdominal pain. We describe a strategy that can be useful to patients with concurrent pain from more than one source. Our case also adds to the growing evidence supporting the use of SCS for treating chronic visceral pain syndromes.

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          Spinal cord stimulation for visceral pain from chronic pancreatitis.

            Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) may reduce pain scores and improve function in patients with various chronic abdominal pain syndromes including chronic pancreatitis. Here described is a large clinical experience in SCS for severe chronic pancreatitis.
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            Spinal cord stimulation for chronic visceral abdominal pain.

            Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) may reduce pain scores and improve function in patients with chronic visceral abdominal pain. We thus present our large clinical experience in SCS for visceral abdominal pain. We trialed spinal cord stimulation in 35 patients, each of whom was shown by retrograde differential epidural block to have either visceral pain (n = 32) or mixed visceral and central pain (n = 3). SCS trials lasted 4 to 14 days (median 9 days). SCS lead tips were mostly positioned at T5 (n = 11) or T6 (n = 10). Thirty patients (86%) reported at least 50% pain relief upon completion of the trial. Among these, pretrial visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores averaged 8.2 +/- 1.6 (SD) and opioid use averaged 110 +/- 119 mg morphine sulfate equivalents. During the trial, VAS pain scores decreased to 3.1 +/- 1.6 cm (P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test) and opioid use decreased to 70 +/- 68 mg morphine equivalent a day (P = 0.212). Five patients failed the trial, one was lost to follow-up, and 19 were followed for the whole year. Seven patients were either followed for less than a year (n = 3) or the SCS system was removed due to infection or lead migration (n = 4). One patient despite the successful trial felt no improvements at 6 months after the implant and requested an explant of the SCS device. Among the 28 patients who received permanent implant, 19 were followed at least a year. Their VAS pain scores remained low (3.8 +/- 1.9 cm; P < 0.001) at 1 year, as did opioid use (38 +/- 48 mg morphine equivalents; P = 0.089). Spinal cord stimulation may be a useful therapeutic option for patients with severe visceral pain.
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              Application of spinal cord stimulation for the treatment of abdominal visceral pain syndromes: case reports.

              Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has traditionally been applied to the treatment of neuropathic pain with good to excellent outcomes. Visceral pain syndromes can be just as debilitating and disabling as somatic and neuropathic pain, however, there seems to be a general lack of consensus on appropriate treatment strategies for these disorders. We present here several case studies to demonstrate the viscerotomal distribution of abdominal visceral pain pathways and the application of traditional SCS techniques for its management. Nine patients, experiencing abdominal visceral pain due to various conditions including chronic nonalcoholic pancreatitis, post-traumatic splenectomy, and generalized abdominal pain secondary to laparotomies, were treated with SCS. Efficacy of treatment was evaluated using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain intensity and a reduction, if any, in opioid intake. There was an overall mean reduction of 4.9 points in the VAS score for pain intensity and a substantial (> 50%) decrease in narcotic use. All patients were followed for more than one year with excellent outcomes and minimal complications. We conclude, based on these case reports, that SCS might be an effective, nondestructive, and reversible treatment modality for abdominal visceral pain disorders.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                30 April 2020
                : 13
                : 873-875
                [1 ]Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine , Boston, MA, USA
                [2 ]Valley Anesthesiology and Pain Consultants – Envision Physician Services , Phoenix, AZ, USA
                [3 ]University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Department of Anesthesiology , Phoenix, AZ, USA
                [4 ]Creighton University School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology , Omaha, NE, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jamal Hasoon Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine , Boston, MA, USA Email Jhasoon@bidmc.harvard.edu
                © 2020 Berger et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 1, References: 7, Pages: 3
                Case Report


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