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      Dual versus triple therapy in patients hospitalized for COPD in France: a claims data study

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          Following a hospitalization for COPD, dual and triple therapies were compared in terms of persistence and relations with outcomes (exacerbations, health care resource use and costs).


          This was a historical observational database study. All patients aged ≥45 hospitalized for COPD between 2007 and 2015 were identified in a 1/97 th random sample of French claims data. Patients receiving dual therapy within 60 days after hospitalization were compared to patients receiving triple therapy, after propensity score matching on disease severity.


          Of the 3,089 patients hospitalized for COPD, 1,538 (49.8%) received either dual or triple therapy in the 2 months following inclusion, and 1,500 (48.6%) had at least 30 days of follow-up available; 846 (27.4%) received dual therapy, and 654 (21.2%) received triple therapy. After matching, the number of exacerbations was 2.4 per year in the dual vs 2.3 in the triple group ( p=0.45). Among newly treated patients (n=206), persistence at 12 months was similar in the dual and triple groups (48% vs 41%, respectively, p=0.37). As compared to patients on dual therapy, more patients on triple therapy received oral corticosteroids (49.1 vs 40.4%, p=0.003) or were hospitalized for any reason (67% vs 55.8%, p=0.0001) or for COPD (35.3 vs 25.1%, p=0.0002) during follow-up. Cost of care was higher for patients on triple than for those on dual therapy (€11,877.1 vs €9,825.1, p=0.01).


          Following hospitalizations for COPD, patients on dual and triple therapy experienced recurrent exacerbations, limited adherence to therapies and high cost of care. Patients on triple therapy appeared more severe than those on dual therapy, as reflected by exacerbations and health care resource use.

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          Effect of tiotropium on outcomes in patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (UPLIFT): a prespecified subgroup analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

          The beneficial effects of pharmacotherapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are well established. However, there are few data for treatment in the early stages of the disease. We examined the effect of tiotropium on outcomes in a large subgroup of patients with moderate COPD. The Understanding Potential Long-Term Impacts on Function with Tiotropium (UPLIFT) study was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial undertaken in 487 centres in 37 countries. 5993 patients aged 40 years or more with COPD were randomly assigned to receive 4 years of treatment with either once daily tiotropium (18 microg; n=2987) or matching placebo (n=3006), delivered by an inhalation device. Randomisation was by computer-generated blocks of four, with stratification according to study site. In a prespecified subgroup analysis, we investigated the effects of tiotropium in patients with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage II disease. Primary endpoints were the yearly rates of decline in prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and in postbronchodilator FEV(1), beginning on day 30 until completion of double-blind treatment. The analysis included all patients who had at least three measurements of pulmonary function. This study is registered with, number NCT00144339. 2739 participants (mean age 64 years [SD 9]) had GOLD stage II disease at randomisation (tiotropium, n=1384; control, n=1355), with a mean postbronchodilator FEV(1) of 1.63 L (SD 0.37; 59% of predicted value). 1218 patients in the tiotropium group and 1157 in the control group had three or more measurements of postbronchodilator pulmonary function after day 30 and were included in the analysis. The rate of decline of mean postbronchodilator FEV(1) was lower in the tiotropium group than in the control group (43 mL per year [SE 2] vs 49 mL per year [SE 2], p=0.024). For prebronchodilator pulmonary function, 1221 patients in the tiotropium group and 1158 in the control group had three or more measurements and were included in the analysis. The rate of decline of mean prebronchodilator FEV(1) did not differ between groups (35 mL per year [SE 2] vs 37 mL per year [SE 2]; p=0.38). Health status, measured with the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, was better at all timepoints in the tiotropium group than in the control group (p
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            Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation and inhaler device handling: real-life assessment of 2935 patients.

            Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be prevented by inhaled treatment. Errors in inhaler handling, not taken into account in clinical trials, could impact drug delivery and minimise treatment benefit. We aimed to assess real-life inhaler device handling in COPD patients and its association with COPD exacerbations.To this end, 212 general practitioners and 50 pulmonologists assessed the handling of 3393 devices used for continuous treatment of COPD in 2935 patients. Handling errors were observed in over 50% of handlings, regardless of the device used. Critical errors compromising drug delivery were respectively made in 15.4%, 21.2%, 29.3%, 43.8%, 46.9% and 32.1% of inhalation assessment tests with Breezhaler® (n=876), Diskus® (n=452), Handihaler® (n=598), pressurised metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) (n=422), Respimat® (n=625) and Turbuhaler® (n=420).The proportion of patients requiring hospitalisation or emergency room visits in the past 3 months for severe COPD exacerbation was 3.3% (95% CI 2.0-4.5) in the absence of error and 6.9% (95% CI 5.3-8.5) in the presence of critical error (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.14-3.04, p<0.05).Handling errors of inhaler devices are underestimated in real life and are associated with an increased rate of severe COPD exacerbation. Training in inhaler use is an integral part of COPD management.
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              Impact of exacerbations on health care cost and resource utilization in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with chronic bronchitis from a predominantly Medicare population

              Background Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) lead to significant increases in resource utilization and cost to the health care system. COPD patients with chronic bronchitis and a history of exacerbations pose an additional burden to the system. This study examined health care utilization and cost among these patients. Methods For this retrospective analysis, data were extracted from a large national health plan with a predominantly Medicare population. This study involved patients who were aged 40–89 years, had been enrolled continuously for 24 months or more, had at least two separate insurance claims for COPD with chronic bronchitis (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 491.xx), and had pharmacy claims for COPD maintenance medications between January 1, 2007, and March 31, 2009. Two years of data were examined for each patient; the index date was defined as the first occurrence of COPD. Baseline characteristics were obtained from the first year of data, with health outcomes tracked in the second year. Severe exacerbation was defined by COPD-related hospitalization or death; moderate exacerbation was defined by oral or parenteral corticosteroid use. Adjusted numbers of exacerbations and COPD-related costs per patient were estimated controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics. Results The final study sample involved 8554 patients; mean age was 70.1 ± 8.6 years and 49.8% of the overall population had exacerbation, 13.9% had a severe exacerbation only, 29.1% had a moderate exacerbation only, and 6.8% had both a severe and moderate exacerbation. COPD-related mean annual costs were $4069 (all figures given in US dollars) for the overall population and $6381 for patients with two or more exacerbations. All-cause health care costs were $18,976 for the overall population and $23,901 for patients with history of two or more exacerbations. Severity of exacerbations, presence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and long-term oxygen use were associated with higher adjusted costs. Conclusions The results indicate that despite treatment with maintenance medications, COPD patients continue to have exacerbations resulting in higher costs. New medications and disease management interventions are warranted to reduce the severity and frequency of exacerbations and the related cost impact of the disease.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                20 August 2019
                : 14
                : 1839-1854
                [1 ]Pharmacoepidemiology Department, PELyon , Lyon, France
                [2 ]Respiratory Medicine, Cochin Hospital, AP-HP and Paris Descartes University (EA2511), Sorbonne Paris Cité , Paris, France
                [3 ]Pulmonary Department, European Hospital , Marseille, France
                [4 ]Pulmonary Department, INSERM U1250, Maison Blanche University Hospital , Reims, France
                [5 ]Pulmonary Department, CHI de Créteil, University Paris Est Créteil , Créteil, France
                [6 ]Department of Airway Diseases, UPRES EA 220, Foch Hospital, Paris-Saclay University , Suresnes, France
                [7 ]EA 7425 Hesper Health Services and Performance Research, Claude-Bernard University , Lyon, France
                [8 ]Respiratory Medicine, Croix-rousse Hospital , Lyon, France
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Faustine DalonPELyon , 11 Rue Guillaume Paradin, Lyon69008, FranceTel +33 47 877 1024Fax +33 47 877 8660Email
                © 2019 Dalon et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 6, References: 43, Pages: 16
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                copd, therapy, persistence, exacerbations, health care resource use


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