This three-phase investigation used focus groups and a survey to identify factors that perceived by speech language pathologists as being related to long-term success versus inappropriate abandonment of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems. Factors deemed most important by six focus groups were included in a 106-question survey that was returned by 275 ASHA Special Interest Division #12 (AAC) members. Factor analysis indicated the constructs of Support, Attitude, and System characteristics and Fit as most important to the long-term success of AAC systems. The constructs of Not Maintaining/Adjusting the System, Attitude, Lack of Training, Lack of Support, and Poor Fit were most often related to inappropriate abandonment of AAC systems. Systematic implementation of intervention targeting the constructs is recommended.