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      The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall.) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Slovakia, Central Europe

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year -1, similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea) was dominant along a longitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together) between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader.

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          Invasive alien predator causes rapid declines of native European ladybirds

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            Inferring the origin of populations introduced from a genetically structured native range by approximate Bayesian computation: case study of the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis.

            Correct identification of the source population of an invasive species is a prerequisite for testing hypotheses concerning the factors responsible for biological invasions. The native area of invasive species may be large, poorly known and/or genetically structured. Because the actual source population may not have been sampled, studies based on molecular markers may generate incorrect conclusions about the origin of introduced populations. In this study, we characterized the genetic structure of the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis in its native area using various population genetic statistics and methods. We found that native area of H. axyridis most probably consisted of two geographically distinct genetic clusters located in eastern and western Asia. We then performed approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) analyses on controlled simulated microsatellite data sets to evaluate (i) the risk of selecting incorrect introduction scenarios, including admixture between sources, when the populations of the native area are genetically structured and sampling is incomplete and (ii) the ability of ABC analysis to minimize such risks by explicitly including unsampled populations in the scenarios compared. Finally, we performed additional ABC analyses on real microsatellite data sets to retrace the origin of biocontrol and invasive populations of H. axyridis, taking into account the possibility that the structured native area may have been incompletely sampled. We found that the invasive population in eastern North America, which has served as the bridgehead for worldwide invasion by H. axyridis, was probably formed by an admixture between the eastern and western native clusters. This admixture may have facilitated adaptation of the bridgehead population. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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              Bad side of a good beetle: the North American experience with Harmonia axyridis

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                ZooKeys
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2014
                29 May 2014
                : 412
                : 89-112
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, Šrobárova 2, Košice, Slovak Republic
                [2 ]Institute of Forest Ecology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Ľ. Štúra 2, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovak Republic
                [3 ]Crop Research Institute, Drnovská 507/73, 161 06 Prague 6 – Ruzyně, Czech Republic
                [4 ]Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 31c, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
                [5 ]Institute of Entomology, Biology Centre AS CR, Branišovská 31a, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
                [6 ]Institute of Zoology, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava, Slovak Republic
                [7 ]NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, OX10 8BB United Kingdom
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Peter Zach ( zach@ 123456savzv.sk )

                Academic editor: N. Vandenberg

                Article
                10.3897/zookeys.412.6587
                4042697
                24899863
                f18e3362-9736-4467-85af-f5449a605a4a
                Ľubomír Panigaj, Peter Zach, Alois Honěk, Oldřich Nedvěd, Ján Kulfan, Zdenka Martinková, Diana Selyemová, Sandra Viglášová, Helen E. Roy

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 9 November 2013
                : 16 May 2014
                Categories
                Research Article

                Animal science & Zoology
                alien,altitude,colour morphs,spatial occurrence,spread
                Animal science & Zoology
                alien, altitude, colour morphs, spatial occurrence, spread

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