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      Intermittent Pneumatic Compression and Cold Water Immersion Effects on Physiological and Perceptual Recovery during Multi-Sports International Championship


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          Background: Congested-fixture championships are common during the selection of the athletes and teams participating in the Olympic Games. Throughout these tournaments, it is fundamental to perform optimally, rest well, and recover between competitions. This study aimed to (a) explore the effectiveness of the use of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) and cold water immersion (CWI) to recover muscle mechanical function (MuscleMechFx), hydration status (HydS), pain perception (PainPercep), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), sleep hours, and sleep quality (SleepQual) during a regional multi-sports international championship and (b) compare these results by sex. Methods: A total of 52 basketball and handball players were exposed to a recovery protocol after the competition as follows: IPC, sequential 20 min at 200 mmHg, and CWI, continuous 12 min at 12 °C. Results: MuscleMechFx presented differences by match and sex ( p = 0.058) in time of contraction of biceps femoris; SleepQual and sleep hours were different between matches (<0.01). Conclusions: IPC + CWI seems to be effective to maintain some MuscleMechFx, HydS, and recovery and pain perception during a congested multi-sport tournament.

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          The theory of training was established about five decades ago when knowledge of athletes' preparation was far from complete and the biological background was based on a relatively small amount of objective research findings. At that time, traditional 'training periodization', a division of the entire seasonal programme into smaller periods and training units, was proposed and elucidated. Since then, international sport and sport science have experienced tremendous changes, while the traditional training periodization has remained at more or less the same level as the published studies of the initial publications. As one of the most practically oriented components of theory, training periodization is intended to offer coaches basic guidelines for structuring and planning training. However, during recent decades contradictions between the traditional model of periodization and the demands of high-performance sport practice have inevitably developed. The main limitations of traditional periodization stemmed from: (i) conflicting physiological responses produced by 'mixed' training directed at many athletic abilities; (ii) excessive fatigue elicited by prolonged periods of multi-targeted training; (iii) insufficient training stimulation induced by workloads of medium and low concentration typical of 'mixed' training; and (iv) the inability to provide multi-peak performances over the season. The attempts to overcome these limitations led to development of alternative periodization concepts. The recently developed block periodization model offers an alternative revamped approach for planning the training of high-performance athletes. Its general idea proposes the sequencing of specialized training cycles, i.e. blocks, which contain highly concentrated workloads directed to a minimal number of targeted abilities. Unlike the traditional model, in which the simultaneous development of many athletic abilities predominates, block-periodized training presupposes the consecutive development of reasonably selected target abilities. The content of block-periodized training is set down in its general principles, a taxonomy of mesocycle blocks, and guidelines for compiling an annual plan.
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                Author and article information

                J Funct Morphol Kinesiol
                J Funct Morphol Kinesiol
                Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
                30 June 2020
                September 2020
                : 5
                : 3
                [1 ]Grupo de Avances en Entrenamiento Deportivo y Acondicionamiento Físico (GAEDAF), Faculty of Sports Science, University of Extremadura, 10005 Cáceres, Spain
                [2 ]Centro de Investigación y Diagnóstico en Salud y Deporte (CIDISAD), Escuela Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Calidad de Vida (CIEMHCAVI), Universidad Nacional, Heredia 86-3000, Costa Rica; randall.gutierrez.vargas@ 123456una.cr (R.G.-V.); augalde07@ 123456hotmail.com (A.U.R.)
                [3 ]Centro de Estudios para el Desarrollo, Rehabilitación y Salud (CEDERSA), Escuela Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Calidad de Vida (CIEMHCAVI), Universidad Nacional, Heredia 86-3000, Costa Rica; jucagu@ 123456msn.com
                [4 ]Programa de Ciencias del Ejercicio y la Salud (PROCESA), Escuela Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Calidad de Vida (CIEMHCAVI), Universidad Nacional, Heredia 86-3000, Costa Rica
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: imartinezg@ 123456unex.es (I.M.-G.); drojasv@ 123456una.cr (D.R.-V.); braulio.sanchez.urena@ 123456una.cr (B.S.-U.); Tel.: +506-8825-0219 (D.R.-V.)

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


                hydration, pain, tensiomyography, muscle function, team sports


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