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      Complex hemodynamics at the apex of an arterial bifurcation induces vascular remodeling resembling cerebral aneurysm initiation.

      Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation

      Animals, Blood Pressure, physiology, Carotid Artery, Common, Cerebral Arteries, Dogs, Female, Intracranial Aneurysm, etiology, physiopathology

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          Abstract

          Arterial bifurcation apices are common sites for cerebral aneurysms, raising the possibility that the unique hemodynamic conditions associated with flow dividers predispose the apical vessel wall to aneurysm formation. This study sought to identify the specific hemodynamic insults that lead to maladaptive vascular remodeling associated with aneurysm development and to identify early remodeling events at the tissue and cellular levels. We surgically created new branch points in the carotid vasculature of 6 female adult dogs. In vivo angiographic imaging and computational fluid dynamics simulations revealed the detailed hemodynamic microenvironment for each bifurcation, which were then spatially correlated with histologic features showing specific tissue responses. We observed 2 distinct patterns of vessel wall remodeling: (1) hyperplasia that formed an intimal pad at the bifurcation apex and (2) destructive remodeling in the adjacent region of flow acceleration that resembled the initiation of an intracranial aneurysm, characterized by disruption of the internal elastic lamina, loss of medial smooth muscle cells, reduced proliferation of smooth muscle cells, and loss of fibronectin. Strong localization of aneurysm-type remodeling to the region of accelerating flow suggests that a combination of high wall shear stress and a high gradient in wall shear stress represents a "dangerous" hemodynamic condition that predisposes the apical vessel wall to aneurysm formation.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          17495215
          2714768
          10.1161/STROKEAHA.106.481234

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