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      Linking Traumatic Brain Injury, Sleep Disruption and Post-Traumatic Headache: a Potential Role for Glymphatic Pathway Dysfunction

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          Brain-wide pathway for waste clearance captured by contrast-enhanced MRI.

          The glymphatic system is a recently defined brain-wide paravascular pathway for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange that facilitates efficient clearance of solutes and waste from the brain. CSF enters the brain along para-arterial channels to exchange with ISF, which is in turn cleared from the brain along para-venous pathways. Because soluble amyloid β clearance depends on glymphatic pathway function, we proposed that failure of this clearance system contributes to amyloid plaque deposition and Alzheimer's disease progression. Here we provide proof of concept that glymphatic pathway function can be measured using a clinically relevant imaging technique. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was used to visualize CSF-ISF exchange across the rat brain following intrathecal paramagnetic contrast agent administration. Key features of glymphatic pathway function were confirmed, including visualization of para-arterial CSF influx and molecular size-dependent CSF-ISF exchange. Whole-brain imaging allowed the identification of two key influx nodes at the pituitary and pineal gland recesses, while dynamic MRI permitted the definition of simple kinetic parameters to characterize glymphatic CSF-ISF exchange and solute clearance from the brain. We propose that this MRI approach may provide the basis for a wholly new strategy to evaluate Alzheimer's disease susceptibility and progression in the live human brain.
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            Neuroinflammation after traumatic brain injury: opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

            Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide, yet despite extensive efforts to develop neuroprotective therapies for this devastating disorder there have been no successful outcomes in human clinical trials to date. Following the primary mechanical insult TBI results in delayed secondary injury events due to neurochemical, metabolic and cellular changes that account for many of the neurological deficits observed after TBI. The development of secondary injury represents a window of opportunity for therapeutic intervention to prevent progressive tissue damage and loss of function after injury. To establish effective neuroprotective treatments for TBI it is essential to fully understand the complex cellular and molecular events that contribute to secondary injury. Neuroinflammation is well established as a key secondary injury mechanism after TBI, and it has been long considered to contribute to the damage sustained following brain injury. However, experimental and clinical research indicates that neuroinflammation after TBI can have both detrimental and beneficial effects, and these likely differ in the acute and delayed phases after injury. The key to developing future anti-inflammatory based neuroprotective treatments for TBI is to minimize the detrimental and neurotoxic effects of neuroinflammation while promoting the beneficial and neurotrophic effects, thereby creating optimal conditions for regeneration and repair after injury. This review outlines how post-traumatic neuroinflammation contributes to secondary injury after TBI, and discusses the complex and varied responses of the primary innate immune cells of the brain, microglia, to injury. In addition, emerging experimental anti-inflammatory and multipotential drug treatment strategies for TBI are discussed, as well as some of the challenges faced by the research community to translate promising neuroprotective drug treatments to the clinic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Intrinsic brain activity triggers trigeminal meningeal afferents in a migraine model.

              Although the trigeminal nerve innervates the meninges and participates in the genesis of migraine headaches, triggering mechanisms remain controversial and poorly understood. Here we establish a link between migraine aura and headache by demonstrating that cortical spreading depression, implicated in migraine visual aura, activates trigeminovascular afferents and evokes a series of cortical meningeal and brainstem events consistent with the development of headache. Cortical spreading depression caused long-lasting blood-flow enhancement selectively within the middle meningeal artery dependent upon trigeminal and parasympathetic activation, and plasma protein leakage within the dura mater in part by a neurokinin-1-receptor mechanism. Our findings provide a neural mechanism by which extracerebral cephalic blood flow couples to brain events; this mechanism explains vasodilation during headache and links intense neurometabolic brain activity with the transmission of headache pain by the trigeminal nerve.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Current Pain and Headache Reports
                Curr Pain Headache Rep
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1531-3433
                1534-3081
                September 2019
                July 29 2019
                September 2019
                : 23
                : 9
                Article
                10.1007/s11916-019-0799-4
                © 2019

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