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      From Orai to E-Cadherin: Subversion of Calcium Trafficking in Cancer to Drive Proliferation, Anoikis-Resistance, and Metastasis

      1 , 1 , 2 , *

      Biomedicines

      MDPI

      calcium, SOCE, SICE, IP3R, Orai, Stim, EGFR, E-cadherin, IQGAP, calmodulin, anoikis, circulating tumor cells

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          Abstract

          The common currency of epithelial differentiation and homeostasis is calcium, stored primarily in the endoplasmic reticulum, rationed according to need, and replenished from the extracellular milieu via store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). This currency is disbursed by the IP3 receptor in response to diverse extracellular signals. The rate of release is governed by regulators of proliferation, autophagy, survival, and programmed cell death, the strength of the signal leading to different outcomes. Intracellular calcium acts chiefly through intermediates such as calmodulin that regulates growth factor receptors such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), actin polymerization, and adherens junction assembly and maintenance. Here we review this machinery and its role in differentiation, then consider how cancer cells subvert it to license proliferation, resist anoikis, and enable metastasis, either by modulating the level of intracellular calcium or its downstream targets or effectors such as EGFR, E-cadherin, IQGAP1, TMEM16A, CLCA2, and TRPA1. Implications are considered for the roles of E-cadherin and growth factor receptors in circulating tumor cells and metastasis. The discovery of novel, cell type-specific modulators and effectors of calcium signaling offers new possibilities for cancer chemotherapy.

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          Most cited references 124

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          Inositol trisphosphate receptor Ca2+ release channels.

          The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors (InsP3Rs) are a family of Ca2+ release channels localized predominately in the endoplasmic reticulum of all cell types. They function to release Ca2+ into the cytoplasm in response to InsP3 produced by diverse stimuli, generating complex local and global Ca2+ signals that regulate numerous cell physiological processes ranging from gene transcription to secretion to learning and memory. The InsP3R is a calcium-selective cation channel whose gating is regulated not only by InsP3, but by other ligands as well, in particular cytoplasmic Ca2+. Over the last decade, detailed quantitative studies of InsP3R channel function and its regulation by ligands and interacting proteins have provided new insights into a remarkable richness of channel regulation and of the structural aspects that underlie signal transduction and permeation. Here, we focus on these developments and review and synthesize the literature regarding the structure and single-channel properties of the InsP3R.
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            Essential regulation of cell bioenergetics by constitutive InsP3 receptor Ca2+ transfer to mitochondria.

            Mechanisms that regulate cellular metabolism are a fundamental requirement of all cells. Most eukaryotic cells rely on aerobic mitochondrial metabolism to generate ATP. Nevertheless, regulation of mitochondrial activity is incompletely understood. Here we identified an unexpected and essential role for constitutive InsP(3)R-mediated Ca(2+) release in maintaining cellular bioenergetics. Macroautophagy provides eukaryotes with an adaptive response to nutrient deprivation that prolongs survival. Constitutive InsP(3)R Ca(2+) signaling is required for macroautophagy suppression in cells in nutrient-replete media. In its absence, cells become metabolically compromised due to diminished mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. Mitochondrial uptake of InsP(3)R-released Ca(2+) is fundamentally required to provide optimal bioenergetics by providing sufficient reducing equivalents to support oxidative phosphorylation. Absence of this Ca(2+) transfer results in enhanced phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase and activation of AMPK, which activates prosurvival macroautophagy. Thus, constitutive InsP(3)R Ca(2+) release to mitochondria is an essential cellular process that is required for efficient mitochondrial respiration and maintenance of normal cell bioenergetics. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Orai1 and STIM1 are critical for breast tumor cell migration and metastasis.

              Tumor metastasis is the primary cause of death of cancer patients. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor metastasis will provide potential drug targets. We report here that Orai1 and STIM1, both of which are involved in store-operated calcium entry, are essential for breast tumor cell migration in vitro and tumor metastasis in mice. Reduction of Orai1 or STIM1 by RNA interference in highly metastatic human breast cancer cells or treatment with a pharmacological inhibitor of store-operated calcium channels decreased tumor metastasis in animal models. Our data demonstrate a role for Orai1 and STIM1 in tumor metastasis and suggest store-operated calcium entry channels as potential cancer therapeutic targets.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biomedicines
                Biomedicines
                biomedicines
                Biomedicines
                MDPI
                2227-9059
                21 June 2020
                June 2020
                : 8
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL 62702, USA; sharma.aarushi1821@ 123456gmail.com
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacology and Simmons Cancer Institute, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL 62702, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: relble2@ 123456siumed.edu ; Tel.: +217-545-7381
                Article
                biomedicines-08-00169
                10.3390/biomedicines8060169
                7345168
                32575848
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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