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      Analysis of steroid 21-hydroxylase gene mutations in the Spanish population

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      Human Genetics

      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Disease expression and molecular genotype in congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

          Genotyping for 10 mutations in the CYP21 gene was performed in 88 families with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Southern blot analysis was used to detect CYP21 deletions or large gene conversions, and allele-specific hybridizations were performed with DNA amplified by the polymerase chain reaction to detect smaller mutations. Mutations were detected on 95% of chromosomes examined. The most common mutations were an A----G change in the second intron affecting pre-mRNA splicing (26%), large deletions (21%), Ile-172----Asn (16%), and Val-281----Leu (11%). Patients were classified into three mutation groups based on degree of predicted enzymatic compromise. Mutation groups were correlated with clinical diagnosis and specific measures of in vivo 21-hydroxylase activity, such as 17-hydroxyprogesterone, aldosterone, and sodium balance. Mutation group A (no enzymatic activity) consisted principally of salt-wasting (severely affected) patients, group B (2% activity) of simple virilizing patients, and group C (10-20% activity) of nonclassic (mildly affected) patients, but each group contained patients with phenotypes either more or less severe than predicted. These data suggest that most but not all of the phenotypic variability in 21-hydroxylase deficiency results from allelic variation in CYP21. Accurate prenatal diagnosis should be possible in most cases using the described strategy.
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            Structure of human steroid 21-hydroxylase genes.

            We have determined the structure of cDNA and two genomic genes encoding steroid 21-hydroxylase [21-OHase; steroid 21-monooxygenase; steroid, hydrogen-donor:oxygen oxidoreductase (21-hydroxylating); EC 1.14.99.10]. If this cytochrome P-450 enzyme is defective, cortisol cannot be synthesized, resulting in congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The cDNA encoding this enzyme is 2.0 kilobases long, and the encoded protein is predicted to contain 494 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 55,000. This enzyme is at most 28% homologous to other P-450 enzymes that have been studied. The 21-OHase genomic genes, which are located in the HLA major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6, each contain 10 exons. This structure is distinct from other characterized P-450 genes, which contain 7 or 9 exons. Studies of individuals with homozygous deletions of the 21-OHase A or B genes suggest that only the B gene encodes an active enzyme. This is confirmed by the finding that the A gene has an 8-base deletion within codons 110-112, resulting in a frameshift that brings a stop codon into the reading frame at codon 130. A second frameshift and a nonsense mutation occur downstream. In contrast, the sequence of the exons of the B gene is identical to the cDNA sequence. The 21-OHase A gene is, therefore, a pseudogene.
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              Complete nucleotide sequence of two steroid 21-hydroxylase genes tandemly arranged in human chromosome: a pseudogene and a genuine gene.

              Two 21-hydroxylase [P-450(C21)] genes have been isolated from a human genomic library using a bovine P-450(C21) cDNA. The insert DNAs containing the P-450(C21) genes were also hybridized with the sequences of the 5' or 3' end regions of human C4 cDNA, indicating a close linkage of the P-450(C21) gene to the C4 gene. Sequence analysis has revealed that the two P-450(C21) genes are both approximately equal to 3.4 kilobases long and split into 10 exons. Comparing the two sequences, we found that the two genes are highly homologous including their introns and flanking sequences, but that three mutations render one of the two P-450(C21) genes nonfunctional--1 base insertion, an 8-base deletion, and a transition mutation--all of which may cause premature termination of the translation. Tandem arrangement of the highly homologous pseudo- and genuine genes in close proximity could account for the high incidence of P-450(C21) gene deficiency by homologous gene recombination.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Human Genetics
                Hum Genet
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0340-6717
                1432-1203
                August 1995
                August 1995
                : 96
                : 2
                : 198-204
                Article
                10.1007/BF00207379
                © 1995

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