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      Cardiovascular Responses, Perceived Exertion and Technical Actions During Small-Sided Recreational Soccer: Effects of Pitch Size and Number of Players


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          The aim of this study was to determine the cardiovascular, perceived exertion and technical effects of altering pitch size and number of players in recreational soccer match-play. The further aim was to evaluate to what extent exercise intensity during various game formats corresponds to the recommended intensity level for cardiovascular fitness improvement. Ten male recreational players aged 31.7±7.6 years (mean ± SD) completed four variations of small-sided games (except for goalkeepers, 5-a-side and 7-a-side on small and large pitches) during which heart rate, perceived exertion and technical actions were evaluated. Two-way analysis of variance on repeated measures was applied to collected data. The results indicated that an average workload expressed as heart rate and percentage of heart rate reserve during 5-a-side games was higher than for 7-a-side games. The rate of perceived exertion values were moderate and similar for all formats of games. The players performed more dribbling and successful passes, but fewer unsuccessful passes during 5-a-side games. Furthermore, the number of ball possessions and unsuccessful passes was higher on a small pitch than on a large one. Consequently, the current findings suggest that, independent of pitch size, the cardiovascular demands imposed on participants increase when the game is played with fewer players. However, all formats of recreational soccer can be used as an effective activity to promote cardiovascular fitness. Finally, participants may have more chance to perform basic technical actions during 5-a-side games on small and large pitches.

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          Most cited references39

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          The effects of training on heart rate; a longitudinal study.

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            Factors influencing physiological responses to small-sided soccer games.

            The aim of this study was to examine the effects of exercise type, field dimensions, and coach encouragement on the intensity and reproducibility of small-sided games. Data were collected on 20 amateur soccer players (body mass 73.1 +/- 8.6 kg, stature 1.79 +/- 0.05 m, age 24.5 +/- 4.1 years, VO(2max) 56.3 +/- 4.8 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Aerobic interval training was performed during three-, four-, five- and six-a-side games on three differently sized pitches, with and without coach encouragement. Heart rate, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) on the CR10-scale, and blood lactate concentration were measured. Main effects were found for exercise type, field dimensions, and coach encouragement (P 0.15). During a six-a-side game on a small pitch without coach encouragement, exercise intensity was 84 +/- 5% of maximal heart rate, blood lactate concentration was 3.4 +/- 1.0 mmol x l(-1), and the RPE was 4.8. During a three-a-side game on a larger pitch with coach encouragement, exercise intensity was 91 +/- 2% of maximal heart rate, blood lactate concentration was 6.5 +/- 1.5 mmol x l(-1), and the RPE was 7.2. Typical error expressed as a coefficient of variation ranged from 2.0 to 5.4% for percent maximal heart rate, from 10.4 to 43.7% for blood lactate concentration, and from 5.5 to 31.9% for RPE. The results demonstrate that exercise intensity during small-sided soccer games can be manipulated by varying the exercise type, the field dimensions, and whether there is any coach encouragement. By using different combinations of these factors, coaches can modulate exercise intensity within the high-intensity zone and control the aerobic training stimulus.
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              Time-motion, heart rate, perceptual and motor behaviour demands in small-sides soccer games: effects of pitch size.

              The aim of this study was to examine physical, physiological, and motor responses and perceived exertion during different soccer drills. In small-sided games, the individual playing area (∼ 275 m², ∼ 175 m², and ∼ 75 m²) was varied while the number of players per team was kept constant: 5 vs. 5 plus goalkeepers. Participants were ten male youth soccer players. Each session comprised three small-sided game formats, which lasted 8 min each with a 5-min passive rest period between them. A range of variables was recorded and analysed for the three drills performed over three training sessions: (a) physiological, measured using Polar Team devices; (b) physical, using GPS SPI elite devices; (c) perceived exertion, rated using the CR-10 scale; and (d) motor response, evaluated using an observational tool that was specially designed for this study. Significant differences were observed for most of the variables studied. When the individual playing area was larger, the effective playing time, the physical (total distance covered; distances covered in low-intensity running, medium-intensity running, and high-intensity running; distance covered per minute; maximum speed; work-to-rest ratio; sprint frequency) and physiological workload (percent maximum heart rate; percent mean heart rate; time spent above 90% maximum heart rate), and the rating of perceived exertion were all higher, while certain motor behaviours were observed less frequently (interception, control and dribble, control and shoot, clearance, and putting the ball in play). The results show that the size of the pitch should be taken into account when planning training drills, as it influences the intensity of the task and the motor response of players.

                Author and article information

                J Hum Kinet
                J Hum Kinet
                Journal of Human Kinetics
                Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego w Katowicach
                30 September 2013
                08 October 2013
                : 38
                : 95-105
                [1 ]Mustafa Kemal University, School of Physical Education and Sports, Antakya, TURKEY.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Alper Aslan, Mustafa Kemal University, School of Physical Education and Sports, Antakya 31034 / TURKEY, Telefon: + 90. 326. 2455206, Fax:+ 90. 326. 2455216, E-mail: alperaslan72@ 123456gmail.com

                Authors submitted their contribution of the article to the editorial board.

                © Editorial Committee of Journal of Human Kinetics

                This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                : September 2013
                Research Article
                Section II- Exercise Physiology & Sports Medicine

                exercise intensity,heart rate,rate of perceived exertion,notation analysis,recreational soccer


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