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      Teprotumumab for the Treatment of Active Thyroid Eye Disease

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="d5212336e231">Thyroid eye disease is a debilitating, disfiguring, and potentially blinding periocular condition for which no Food and Drug Administration-approved medical therapy is available. Strong evidence has implicated the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) in the pathogenesis of this disease. </p>

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          Most cited references 23

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          Clinical activity score as a guide in the management of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

          Approximately 35% of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy do not respond to immunosuppressive treatment. A possible explanation for this finding is that only patients with active ophthalmopathy respond to immunosuppressive treatment, whereas patients with fibrotic end stage disease do not. To distinguish between these two groups and to predict the outcome of immunosuppressive treatment, we developed a clinical activity score (CAS) based on four of the five classical signs of inflammation and tested its efficacy in a double-blind, prospective study. The CAS was determined by an opthalmologist before, on the day of, and after the start of either oral prednisone or retrobulbar irradiation in 43 patients with moderate to severe Graves' ophthalmopathy. The therapeutic outcome was determined by a second ophthalmologist unaware of the CAS stores given. Success of treatment was defined as an improvement in NOSPECS class or grade. Responders (22) and non-responders (21) did not differ in age, sex, duration or severity of their Graves' ophthalmopathy. The pretreatment CAS, however, was significantly higher in responders than in non-responders. Twelve of 22 responders and three of 21 non-responders had a CAS > or = 4 (55% vs 14%; P or = 4 had a similar duration of Graves' ophthalmopathy as patients with a CAS < 4. The clinical activity score has a high predictive value for the outcome of immunosuppressive treatment in Graves' ophthalmopathy. Disease activity, and not disease duration, is the prime determinant of therapeutic outcome.
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            Clinical review: Intravenous glucocorticoids for Graves' orbitopathy: efficacy and morbidity.

            The administration of iv glucocorticoid pulses has been advocated as a treatment approach for patients with inflammatory and moderate to severe Graves' orbitopathy (GO). This review offers an update on this controversial regimen.
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              Evidence for an association between thyroid-stimulating hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors: a tale of two antigens implicated in Graves' disease.

              Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) plays a central role in regulating thyroid function and is targeted by IgGs in Graves' disease (GD-IgG). Whether TSHR is involved in the pathogenesis of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), the orbital manifestation of GD, remains uncertain. TSHR signaling overlaps with that of insulin-like grow factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R). GD-IgG can activate fibroblasts derived from donors with GD to synthesize T cell chemoattractants and hyaluronan, actions mediated through IGF-1R. In this study, we compare levels of IGF-1R and TSHR on the surfaces of TAO and control orbital fibroblasts and thyrocytes and explore the physical and functional relationship between the two receptors. TSHR levels are 11-fold higher on thyrocytes than on TAO or control fibroblasts. In contrast, IGF-1R levels are 3-fold higher on TAO vs control fibroblasts. In pull-down studies using fibroblasts, thyrocytes, and thyroid tissue, Abs directed specifically against either IGF-1Rbeta or TSHR bring both proteins out of solution. Moreover, IGF-1Rbeta and TSHR colocalize to the perinuclear and cytoplasmic compartments in fibroblasts and thyrocytes by confocal microscopy. Examination of orbital tissue from patients with TAO reveals similar colocalization to cell membranes. Treatment of primary thyrocytes with recombinant human TSH results in rapid ERK phosphorylation which can be blocked by an IGF-1R-blocking mAb. Our findings suggest that IGF-1R might mediate some TSH-provoked signaling. Furthermore, they indicate that TSHR levels on orbital fibroblasts are considerably lower than those on thyrocytes and that this receptor associates with IGF-1R in situ and together may comprise a functional complex in thyroid and orbital tissue.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                January 23 2020
                January 23 2020
                : 382
                : 4
                : 341-352
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From Cedars–Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (R.S.D., A.P.); Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Mainz (G.J.K.), and University Hospital Essen, Essen (A.E.) — both in Germany; Horizon Therapeutics, Lake Forest, IL (S.S., E.H.Z.T., R.P., J.W.S., T.V., R.J.H.); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis (J.C.F., B.T.F.); University of Pisa, Pisa (C.M., M.M., A.A.), and Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan (M.S.) — both in Italy; Oregon Health and Sciences...
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMoa1910434
                31971679
                © 2020
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