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      IL-17 mediates inflammatory reactions via p38/c-Fos and JNK/c-Jun activation in an AP-1-dependent manner in human nucleus pulposus cells

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          Abstract

          Background

          Low back pain and sciatica caused by intervertebral disc (IVD) disease are associated with inflammatory responses. The cytokine interleukin 17 (IL-17) is elevated in herniated and degenerated IVD tissues and acts as a regulator of disc inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate the involvement of IL-17A in IVD inflammatory response and to explore the mechanisms underlying this response.

          Methods

          Cells were isolated from nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues collected from patients undergoing surgeries for IVD degeneration. The concentrations of COX2 and PGE2, as well as of select proteins involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/activating protein-1 (AP-1) pathway, were quantified in NP cells after exposure to IL-17 with or without pretreatment with MAPK or AP-1 inhibitors.

          Results

          Our results showed that IL-17A increased COX2 expression and PGE2 production via the activation of MAPKs, including p38 kinase and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Moreover, IL-17A-induced COX2 and PGE2 production was shown to rely on p38/c-Fos and JNK/c-Jun activation in an AP-1-dependent manner.

          Conclusion

          In summary, our results indicate that IL-17A enhances COX2 expression and PGE2 production via the p38/c-Fos and JNK/c-Jun signalling pathways in NP cells to mediate IVD inflammation.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Specificity of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling: transient versus sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation.

          A number of different intracellular signaling pathways have been shown to be activated by receptor tyrosine kinases. These activation events include the phosphoinositide 3-kinase, 70 kDa S6 kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phospholipase C-gamma, and the Jak/STAT pathways. The precise role of each of these pathways in cell signaling remains to be resolved, but studies on the differentiation of mammalian PC12 cells in tissue culture and the genetics of cell fate determination in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis suggest that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK-regulated) MAPK pathway may be sufficient for these cellular responses. Experiments with PC12 cells also suggest that the duration of ERK activation is critical for cell signaling decisions.
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            Preferential recruitment of CCR6-expressing Th17 cells to inflamed joints via CCL20 in rheumatoid arthritis and its animal model

            This report shows that interleukin (IL) 17–producing T helper type 17 (Th17) cells predominantly express CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 6 in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Th17 cells induced in vivo in normal mice via homeostatic proliferation similarly express CCR6, whereas those inducible in vitro by transforming growth factor β and IL-6 additionally need IL-1 and neutralization of interferon (IFN) γ and IL-4 for CCR6 expression. Forced expression of RORγt, a key transcription factor for Th17 cell differentiation, induces not only IL-17 but also CCR6 in naive T cells. Furthermore, Th17 cells produce CCL20, the known ligand for CCR6. Synoviocytes from arthritic joints of mice and humans also produce a large amount of CCL20, with a significant correlation (P = 0.014) between the amounts of IL-17 and CCL20 in RA joints. The CCL20 production by synoviocytes is augmented in vitro by IL-1β, IL-17, or tumor necrosis factor α, and is suppressed by IFN-γ or IL-4. Administration of blocking anti-CCR6 monoclonal antibody substantially inhibits mouse arthritis. Thus, the joint cytokine milieu formed by T cells and synovial cells controls the production of CCL20 and, consequently, the recruitment of CCR6+ arthritogenic Th17 cells to the inflamed joints. These results indicate that CCR6 expression contributes to Th17 cell function in autoimmune disease, especially in autoimmune arthritis such as RA.
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              Signal transduction by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)--from inflammation to development.

               Y Ip,  Roger Davis (1998)
              The c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) group of MAP kinases has been identified in mammals and insects. JNK is activated by exposure of cells to cytokines or environmental stress, indicating that this signaling pathway may contribute to inflammatory responses. Genetic and biochemical studies demonstrate that this signaling pathway also regulates cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and tissue morphogenesis. A functional role for JNK is therefore established in both the cellular response to stress and in many normal physiological processes.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                kuersikehao110@163.com
                forrestnie@sina.com
                miraculously2008@163.com
                zh_y_qhappy@126.com
                wangxiaoqing@126.com
                wangshshyx@163.com
                liuyiys@126.com
                zhaohuadr@163.com
                +86531-82166551 , chengleiyx@126.com
                Journal
                J Transl Med
                J Transl Med
                Journal of Translational Medicine
                BioMed Central (London )
                1479-5876
                17 March 2016
                17 March 2016
                2016
                : 14
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012 Shandong People’s Republic of China
                [ ]Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, 200011 People’s Republic of China
                [ ]Qilu Hospital Shandong University, No.107, Wen Hua Xi Road, Jinan, 250012 Shandong People’s Republic of China
                Article
                833
                10.1186/s12967-016-0833-9
                4794827
                26988982
                © Li et al. 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: 81572191
                Award ID: 30700852
                Award ID: 81272036
                Award ID: 81501880
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province
                Award ID: ZR2013HM095
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Medicine

                il-17, cox2, pge2, lbp, mapk, ap-1

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