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      A comparison of the assessment of health status between CCQ and CAT in a Chinese COPD clinical population: a cross-sectional analysis

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          Both the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) were recommended as comprehensive symptom measures by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung disease. The main objective of this work was to compare the evaluation of symptom severity with the CAT and the CCQ and find a cutoff value of the CCQ for the Chinese clinical population.


          Patients diagnosed with stable COPD in the outpatient department who completed the CAT and CCQ were enrolled from November 2015 to December 2016. Scores of 0–10, 11–20, 21–30, and 31–40 represent low, medium, high, and very high impact level, respectively, by CAT. Scores of the CCQ can be considered as acceptable (CCQ<1), acceptable for moderate disease (1≤CCQ<2), instable-severe limited (2≤CCQ<3), and very instable-very severe limited (CCQ≥3).


          According to the CAT, only 20.4% of patients belonged to the high (21≤CAT≤30) and very high (31≤CAT≤40) impact levels, which were statistically lower than those of the CCQ, which classified over half of the population (51.1%) into the instable-severe limited (2≤CCQ<3) and very instable-very severe limited (CCQ≥3) categories ( P<0.001). The kappa of agreement for the symptom groups by CAT and CCQ (cutoff point 1.5) was 0.495, but only slight agreement (0.144) was found between the CAT and CCQ with the cutoff point of 1.0. The CAT and the total CCQ had a strong correlation (rho=0.776, P<0.01). The CCQ 1.0 and 1.5 corresponded to CAT 4.2 and 9.7, respectively. The CAT 10.0 was equivalent to 1.53 of the CCQ. In addition, with higher scores of the CAT and CCQ, subjects displayed more impairment in lung function, higher levels on modified Medical Research Council, and higher exacerbation rates in the last year ( P<0.001). Similarly, patients with more exacerbations presented worse scores on the CAT and total CCQ as well as its 3 domains ( P<0.001).


          Compared with the CAT, the CCQ was more likely to classify the patients into more severe categories, and 1.5 might be a better cutoff point for the CCQ than 1.0. Both the CAT and the overall CCQ with its 3 domains were able to discriminate between groups of patients that differ in COPD severity.

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          Most cited references 13

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          The COPD assessment test (CAT) assists prediction of COPD exacerbations in high-risk patients.

          We evaluated the predictive value of the COPD assessment test (CAT™) for exacerbation in the following six months or time to first exacerbation among COPD patients with previous exacerbations. COPD outpatients with a history of exacerbation from 19 hospitals completed the CAT questionnaire and spirometry over six months. Exacerbation events were prospectively collected using a structured questionnaire. The baseline CAT score categorised into four groups (0-9, 10-19, 20-29, and 30-40) showed strong prediction for time to first exacerbation and modest prediction for any exacerbation or moderate-severe exacerbation (AUC 0.83, 0.64, and 0.63 respectively). In multivariate analyses, the categorised CAT score independently predicted all three outcomes (p = 0.001 or p 24, 14, 9, and 5 weeks and the adjusted RR was 1.00, 1.30, 1.37, and 1.50 in the category of 0-9, 10-19, 20-29, and 30-40 respectively. Exacerbation history (≥2 vs. 1 event in the past year) was related to time to first exacerbation (adjusted HR 1.35; p = 0.023) and any exacerbation during the study period (adjusted RR 1.15; p = 0.016). The results of this study support the use of the CAT as a simple tool to assist in the identification of patients at increased risk of exacerbations. This could facilitate timely and cost-effective implementation of preventive interventions, and improve health resource allocation.
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            Overview of the prevalence, impact, and management of depression and anxiety in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

            More than one third of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience comorbid symptoms of depression and anxiety. This review aims to provide an overview of the burden of depression and anxiety in those with COPD and to outline the contemporary advances and challenges in the management of depression and anxiety in COPD. Symptoms of depression and anxiety in COPD lead to worse health outcomes, including impaired health-related quality of life and increased mortality risk. Depression and anxiety also increase health care utilization rates and costs. Although the quality of the data varies considerably, the cumulative evidence shows that complex interventions consisting of pulmonary rehabilitation interventions with or without psychological components improve symptoms of depression and anxiety in COPD. Cognitive behavioral therapy is also an effective intervention for managing depression in COPD, but treatment effects are small. Cognitive behavioral therapy could potentially lead to greater benefits in depression and anxiety in people with COPD if embedded in multidisciplinary collaborative care frameworks, but this hypothesis has not yet been empirically assessed. Mindfulness-based treatments are an alternative option for the management of depression and anxiety in people with long-term conditions, but their efficacy is unproven in COPD. Beyond pulmonary rehabilitation, the evidence about optimal approaches for managing depression and anxiety in COPD remains unclear and largely speculative. Future research to evaluate the effectiveness of novel and integrated care approaches for the management of depression and anxiety in COPD is warranted.
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              Diagnosis, assessment, and phenotyping of COPD: beyond FEV1

              COPD is now widely recognized as a complex heterogeneous syndrome, having both pulmonary and extrapulmonary features. In clinical practice, the diagnosis of COPD is based on the presence of chronic airflow limitation, as assessed by post-bronchodilator spirometry. The severity of the airflow limitation, as measured by percent predicted FEV1, provides important information to the physician to enable optimization of management. However, in order to accurately assess the complexity of COPD, there need to be other measures made beyond FEV1. At present, there is a lack of reliable and simple blood biomarkers to confirm and further assess the diagnosis of COPD. However, it is possible to identify patients who display different phenotypic characteristics of COPD that relate to clinically relevant outcomes. Currently, validated phenotypes of COPD include alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, and “frequent exacerbators”. Recently, a definition and assessment of a new phenotype comprising patients with overlapping features of asthma and COPD has been suggested and is known as “asthma COPD overlap syndrome”. Several other phenotypes have been proposed, but require validation against clinical outcomes. Defining phenotypes requires the assessment of multiple factors indicating disease severity, its impact, and its activity. Recognition and validation of COPD phenotypes has an important role to play in the selection of evidence-based targeted therapy in the future management of COPD, but regardless of the diagnostic terms, patients with COPD should be assessed and treated according to their individual treatable characteristics.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                24 May 2018
                : 13
                : 1675-1682
                [1 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China
                [2 ]Research Unit of Respiratory Disease, Central South University, Changsha, China
                [3 ]Diagnosis and Treatment Center of Respiratory Disease, Central South University, Changsha, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ping Chen, Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 139 Renmin Middle Road, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China, Email pingchen0731@
                © 2018 Zhou et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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