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      Formation and Evolution of Primordial Black Hole Binaries in the Early Universe

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          Abstract

          The abundance of primordial black holes (PBHs) in the mass range \(0.1 - 10^3 M_\odot\) can potentially be tested by gravitational wave observations due to the large merger rate of PBH binaries formed in the early universe. To put the estimates of the latter on a firmer footing, we first derive analytical PBH merger rate for the general mass function considering only initial configurations that give a conservative result. We then study the formation and evolution of PBH binaries before recombination by performing N-body simulations. We find that the analytical merger rate estimate based on the tidally perturbed 2-body problem fails when PBHs comprise all dark matter, as most initial binaries are disrupted by the surrounding PBHs. This is due to the formation of compact N-body systems at matter-radiation equality. However, if PBHs make up a small fraction of the dark matter, \(f_{\rm PBH} \lesssim 10\%\), these estimates become more reliable. In that case, the merger rate observed by LIGO imposes the strongest constraint on the PBH abundance in the mass range \(2 - 160 M_\odot\). Finally, we argue that, even if most initial PBH binaries are perturbed, the present BH-BH merger rate of binaries formed in the early universe is larger than \(\mathcal{O}(10)\,{\rm Gpc}^{-3} {\rm yr}^{-1}\, f_{\rm PBH}^3\).

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          Most cited references 3

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          Gravitational radiation from a particle in circular orbit around a black hole. II. Numerical results for the nonrotating case

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                05 December 2018
                Article
                1812.01930

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

                Custom metadata
                KCL-PH-TH/2018-70, CERN-TH-2018-266
                32pages, 12 figures
                astro-ph.CO astro-ph.HE hep-ph

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