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      Pro-apoptotic and pro-autophagic effects of the Aurora kinase A inhibitor alisertib (MLN8237) on human osteosarcoma U-2 OS and MG-63 cells through the activation of mitochondria-mediated pathway and inhibition of p38 MAPK/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway

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          Abstract

          Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common malignant bone tumor occurring mostly in children and adolescents between 10 and 20 years of age with poor response to current therapeutics. Alisertib (ALS, MLN8237) is a selective Aurora kinase A inhibitor that displays anticancer effects on several types of cancer. However, the role of ALS in the treatment of OS remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ALS on the cell growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the underlying mechanisms in two human OS cell lines U-2 OS and MG-63. The results showed that ALS had potent growth inhibitory, pro-apoptotic, pro-autophagic, and EMT inhibitory effects on U-2 OS and MG-63 cells. ALS remarkably induced G 2/M arrest and down-regulated the expression levels of cyclin-dependent kinases 1 and 2 and cyclin B1 in both U-2 OS and MG-63 cells. ALS markedly induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis with a significant increase in the expression of key pro-apoptotic proteins and a decrease in main anti-apoptotic proteins. Furthermore, ALS promoted autophagic cell death via the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathways, and activation of 5′-AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Inducers or inhibitors of apoptosis or autophagy simultaneously altered ALS-induced apoptotic and autophagic death in both U-2 OS and MG-63 cells, suggesting a crosstalk between these two primary modes of programmed cell death. Moreover, ALS suppressed EMT-like phenotypes with a marked increase in the expression of E-cadherin but a decrease in N-cadherin in U-2 OS and MG-63 cells. ALS treatment also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation but inhibited the expression levels of sirtuin 1 and nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in both cell lines. Taken together, these findings show that ALS promotes apoptosis and autophagy but inhibits EMT via PI3K/Akt/mTOR, p38 MAPK, and AMPK signaling pathways with involvement of ROS- and sirtuin 1-associated pathways in U-2 OS and MG-63 cells. ALS is a promising anticancer agent in OS treatment and further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy and safety in OS chemotherapy.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Cytochrome c and dATP-dependent formation of Apaf-1/caspase-9 complex initiates an apoptotic protease cascade.

          We report here the purification of the third protein factor, Apaf-3, that participates in caspase-3 activation in vitro. Apaf-3 was identified as a member of the caspase family, caspase-9. Caspase-9 and Apaf-1 bind to each other via their respective NH2-terminal CED-3 homologous domains in the presence of cytochrome c and dATP, an event that leads to caspase-9 activation. Activated caspase-9 in turn cleaves and activates caspase-3. Depletion of caspase-9 from S-100 extracts diminished caspase-3 activation. Mutation of the active site of caspase-9 attenuated the activation of caspase-3 and cellular apoptotic response in vivo, indicating that caspase-9 is the most upstream member of the apoptotic protease cascade that is triggered by cytochrome c and dATP.
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            Mitogen-activated protein kinases in innate immunity.

            Following pathogen infection or tissue damage, the stimulation of pattern recognition receptors on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm of innate immune cells activates members of each of the major mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) subfamilies--the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) subfamilies. In conjunction with the activation of nuclear factor-κB and interferon-regulatory factor transcription factors, MAPK activation induces the expression of multiple genes that together regulate the inflammatory response. In this Review, we discuss our current knowledge about the regulation and the function of MAPKs in innate immunity, as well as the importance of negative feedback loops in limiting MAPK activity to prevent host tissue damage. We also examine how pathogens have evolved complex mechanisms to manipulate MAPK activation to increase their virulence. Finally, we consider the potential of the pharmacological targeting of MAPK pathways to treat autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.
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              Regulation of autophagy by cytoplasmic p53.

              Multiple cellular stressors, including activation of the tumour suppressor p53, can stimulate autophagy. Here we show that deletion, depletion or inhibition of p53 can induce autophagy in human, mouse and nematode cells subjected to knockout, knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of p53. Enhanced autophagy improved the survival of p53-deficient cancer cells under conditions of hypoxia and nutrient depletion, allowing them to maintain high ATP levels. Inhibition of p53 led to autophagy in enucleated cells, and cytoplasmic, not nuclear, p53 was able to repress the enhanced autophagy of p53(-/-) cells. Many different inducers of autophagy (for example, starvation, rapamycin and toxins affecting the endoplasmic reticulum) stimulated proteasome-mediated degradation of p53 through a pathway relying on the E3 ubiquitin ligase HDM2. Inhibition of p53 degradation prevented the activation of autophagy in several cell lines, in response to several distinct stimuli. These results provide evidence of a key signalling pathway that links autophagy to the cancer-associated dysregulation of p53.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                12 March 2015
                : 9
                : 1555-1584
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Spinal Surgery, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
                [3 ]Department of Orthopedics, General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China
                [5 ]Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Research Center and Sino-US Joint Laboratory for Medical Sciences, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou, People’s Republic of China
                [6 ]Department of Biochemistry, Medical Center, Rush University, Chicago, IL, USA
                [7 ]Department of Colorectal Surgery, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, People’s Republic of China
                [8 ]Research Center for Bioengineering and Sensing Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                [9 ]Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah and Salt Lake Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
                [10 ]Department of General Surgery, The First People’s Hospital of Shunde affiliated to Southern Medical University, Foshan, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Shu-Feng Zhou, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, 12901 Bruce B. Downs Blvd., Tampa, FL 33612, USA, Tel +1 813 974 6276, Fax +1 813 905 9885, Email szhou@ 123456health.usf.edu
                Jia-Xuan Qiu, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, 17 Yongwaizheng St, Nanchang 330006, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 791 8869 2531, Fax +86 791 8869 2745, Email qiujiaxuan@ 123456163.com
                Article
                dddt-9-1555
                10.2147/DDDT.S74197
                4362906
                © 2015 Niu et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                emt, als, autophagy, apoptosis, osteosarcoma, pi3k/akt/mtor pathway

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