Based on an updated taxonomy of Gesneriaceae , the biogeography and evolution of the Asian Gesneriaceae are outlined and discussed. Most of the Asian Gesneriaceae belongs to Didymocarpoideae , except Titanotrichum was recently moved into Gesnerioideae . Most basal taxa of the Asian Gesneriaceae are found in the Indian subcontinent and Indo-China Peninsula, suggesting Didymocarpoideae might originate in these regions. Four species diversification centers were recognized, i.e. Sino-Vietnam regions, Malay Peninsula, North Borneo and Northwest Yunnan (Hengduan Mountains). The first three regions are dominated by limestone landscapes, while the Northwest Yunnan is well-known for its numerous deep gorges and high mountains. The places with at least 25% species are neoendemics (newly evolved and narrowly endemic) which were determined as evolutionary hotspots, including Hengduan Mountains, boundary areas of Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi in Southwest China, North Borneo, Pahang and Terengganu in Malay Peninsula, and mountainous areas in North Thailand, North Sulawesi Island. Finally, the underlying mechanisms for biogeographical patterns and species diversification of the Asian Gesneriaceae are discussed.