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      The clinicopathological significance and drug target potential of FHIT in breast cancer, a meta-analysis and literature review

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          Abstract

          FHIT is a bona fide tumor-suppressor gene and its loss contributes to tumorigenesis of epithelial cancers including breast cancer (BC). However, the association and clinicopathological significance between FHIT promoter hypermethylation and BC remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis and literature review to investigate the clinicopathological significance of FHIT methylation in BC. A detailed literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. The data were extracted and assessed by two reviewers independently. Odds ratios with 95% corresponding confidence intervals were calculated. A total of seven relevant articles were available for meta-analysis, which included 985 patients. The frequency of FHIT hypermethylation was significantly increased in invasive ductal carcinoma compared to benign breast disease, the pooled odds ratio was 8.43, P<0.00001. The rate of FHIT hypermethylation was not significantly different between stage I/II and stage III/IV, odds ratio was 2.98, P=0.06. In addition, FHIT hypermethylation was not significantly associated with ER and PR status. FHIT hypermethylation was not significantly correlated with premenopausal and postmenopausal patients with invasive ductal carcinoma. In summary, our meta-analysis indicated that the frequency of FHIT hypermethylation was significantly increased in BC compared to benign breast disease. The rate of FHIT hypermethylation in advanced stages of BC was higher than in earlier stages; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Our data suggested that FHIT methylation could be a diagnostic biomarker of BC carcinogenesis. FHIT is a potential drug target for development of demethylation treatment for patients with BC.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Role of p53 as a prognostic factor for survival in lung cancer: a systematic review of the literature with a meta-analysis.

          The role of p53, as a prognostic factor for survival in lung cancer, is controversial and the purpose of the present systematic review of the literature is to determine this effect. Published studies were identified with the objective to aggregate the available survival results after a methodological assessment using a scale specifically designed by the European Lung Cancer Working Party (ELCWP). To be eligible, a study had to deal with p53 assessment in lung cancer (primary site) only, and to provide a survival comparison according to the p53 status. Among the 74 eligible papers, 30 identified p53 abnormalities as a univariate statistically significant poor prognostic factor and 56 provided sufficient data to allow survival results aggregation. There was no significant difference between the trials that either showed or did not show a prognostic effect of p53 according to the methodological score or to the laboratory technique used. The studies were categorized by histology, disease stage, treatment and laboratory technique. Combined hazard ratios suggested that an abnormal p53 status had an unfavourable impact on survival: in any stage nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) the mean (95% confidence interval) was 1.44 (1.20-1.72) (number of studies included in the subgroup was 11), 1.50 (1.32-1.70) in stages I-II NSCLC (n=19), 1.68 (1.23-2.29) in stages I-IIIB NSCLC (n=5), 1.68 (1.30-2.18) in stages III-IV NSCLC (n=9), 1.48 (1.29-1.70) in surgically resected NSCLC (n=20), 1.37 (1.02-1.85) in squamous cell carcinoma (n=9), 2.24 (1.70-2.95) in adenocarcinoma (n=9), 1.57 (1.28-1.91) for a positive immunohistochemistry with antibody 1801 (n=8), 1.25 (1.09-1.43) for a positive immunohistochemistry with antibody DO-7 (n=16), and 1.65 (1.35-2.00) for an abnormal molecular biology test (n=13). Data were insufficient to determine the prognostic value of p53 in small cell lung cancer. In each subgroup of nonsmall cell lung cancer, p53 abnormal status was shown to be associated with a poorer survival prognosis.
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            DNA methylation signatures for breast cancer classification and prognosis

             Moshe Szyf (2012)
            Changes in gene expression that reset a cell program from a normal to a diseased state involve multiple genetic circuitries, creating a characteristic signature of gene expression that defines the cell's unique identity. Such signatures have been demonstrated to classify subtypes of breast cancers. Because DNA methylation is critical in programming gene expression, a change in methylation from a normal to diseased state should be similarly reflected in a signature of DNA methylation that involves multiple gene pathways. Whole-genome approaches have recently been used with different levels of success to delineate breast-cancer-specific DNA methylation signatures, and to test whether they can classify breast cancer and whether they could be associated with specific clinical outcomes. Recent work suggests that DNA methylation signatures will extend our ability to classify breast cancer and predict outcome beyond what is currently possible. DNA methylation is a robust biomarker, vastly more stable than RNA or proteins, and is therefore a promising target for the development of new approaches for diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer and other diseases. Here, I review the scientific basis for using DNA methylation signatures in breast cancer classification and prognosis. I discuss the role of DNA methylation in normal gene regulation, the aberrations in DNA methylation in cancer, and candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to classify breast cancer subtypes using DNA methylation markers.
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              Fragile genes as biomarkers: epigenetic control of WWOX and FHIT in lung, breast and bladder cancer.

              This study aimed to (a) determine if DNA methylation is a mechanism of WWOX (WW domain containing oxidoreductase) and FHIT (fragile histidine triad) inactivation in lung, breast and bladder cancers; (b) examine distinct methylation patterns in neoplastic and adjacent tissues and (c) seek correlation of methylation patterns with disease status. Protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, and methylation status by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and sequencing, in lung squamous cell carcinomas and adjacent tissues, invasive breast carcinomas, adjacent tissues and normal mammary tissues and bladder transitional cell carcinomas. Wwox and Fhit expression was reduced in cancers in association with hypermethylation. Differential patterns of WWOX and FHIT methylation were observed in neoplastic vs adjacent non-neoplastic tissues, suggesting that targeted MSP amplification could be useful in following treatment or prevention protocols. WWOX promoter MSP differentiates DNA of lung cancer from DNA of adjacent lung tissue. WWOX and FHIT promoter methylation is detected in tissue adjacent to breast cancer and WWOX exon 1 MSP distinguishes breast cancer DNA from DNA of adjacent and normal tissue. Differential methylation in cancerous vs adjacent tissues suggests that WWOX and FHIT hypermethylation analyses could enrich a panel of DNA methylation markers.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                01 October 2015
                : 9
                : 5439-5445
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Cancer Biology Research Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of General Surgery, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Lijun Xu, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, People’s Republic of China, Email junlixu87@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                dddt-9-5439
                10.2147/DDDT.S89861
                4598219
                © 2015 Su et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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