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      Calcium Flux in Neuroblastoma Cells Is a Coupling Mechanism between Non-Genomic and Genomic Modes of Estrogens

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          Estrogens have been demonstrated to rapidly modulate calcium levels in a variety of cell types. However, the significance of estrogen-mediated calcium flux in neuronal cells is largely unknown. The relative importance of intra- and extracellular sources of calcium in estrogenic effects on neurons is also not well understood. Previously, we have demonstrated that membrane-limited estrogens, such as E-BSA given before an administration of a 2-hour pulse of 17β-estradiol (E<sub>2</sub>), can potentiate the transcription mediated by E<sub>2</sub> from a consensus estrogen response element (ERE)-driven reporter gene. Inhibitors to signal transduction cascades given along with E-BSA or E<sub>2</sub> demonstrated that calcium flux is important for E-BSA-mediated potentiation of transcription in a transiently transfected neuroblastoma cell line. In this report, we have used inhibitors to different voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and to intracellular store receptors along with E-BSA in the first pulse or with E<sub>2</sub> in the second pulse to investigate the relative importance of these channels to estrogen-mediated transcription. Neither L- nor P-type VGCCs seem to play a role in estrogen action in these cells; while N-type VGCCs are important in both the non-genomic and genomic modes of estrogen action. Specific inhibitors also showed that the ryanodine receptor and the inositol trisphosphate receptor are important to E-BSA-mediated transcriptional potentiation. This report provides evidence that while intracellular stores of calcium are required to couple non-genomic actions of estrogen initiated at the membrane to transcription in the nucleus, extracellular sources of calcium are also important in both non-genomic and genomic actions of estrogens.

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          Analyses of steroid receptors are important for understanding molecular details of transcriptional control, as well as providing insight as to how an individual transacting factor contributes to cell identity and function. These studies have led to the identification of a superfamily of regulatory proteins that include receptors for thyroid hormone and the vertebrate morphogen retinoic acid. Although animals employ complex and often distinct ways to control their physiology and development, the discovery of receptor-related molecules in a wide range of species suggests that mechanisms underlying morphogenesis and homeostasis may be more ubiquitous than previously expected.
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            Two domains of the human estrogen receptor, responsible for hormone binding (region E) and tight nuclear binding (region C), are essential for the receptor to activate efficiently the transcription of estrogen-responsive genes. Region D, which joins the DNA- and hormone-binding domains, can be altered without affecting activation. Deletion of the N-terminal domain (region A/B) has no effect on activation of a reporter gene containing a vitellogenin estrogen-responsive element (ERE) and the HSV-tk promoter, whereas it severely impairs activation of the human pS2 gene promoter. Deletion of most or all of the hormone-binding domain leads to only about 5% constitutive transcriptional activity, yet these mutants appear to bind efficiently to an ERE in vivo. Apparently, region C recognizes the ERE of target genes, and the hormone-binding domain plays an essential role for efficient activation of transcription.
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              Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors as signal integrators.

              The inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R) is a Ca2+ release channel that responds to the second messenger IP3. Exquisite modulation of intracellular Ca2+ release via IP3Rs is achieved by the ability of IP3R to integrate signals from numerous small molecules and proteins including nucleotides, kinases, and phosphatases, as well as nonenzyme proteins. Because the ion conduction pore composes only approximately 5% of the IP3R, the great bulk of this large protein contains recognition sites for these substances. Through these regulatory mechanisms, IP3R modulates diverse cellular functions, which include, but are not limited to, contraction/excitation, secretion, gene expression, and cellular growth. We review the unique properties of the IP3R that facilitate cell-type and stimulus-dependent control of function, with special emphasis on protein-binding partners.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                July 2005
                29 July 2005
                : 81
                : 3
                : 174-182
                Departments of aBiology and bChemistry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa. and cLaboratory of Neurobiology and Behavior, The Rockefeller University, New York, N.Y., USA
                87000 Neuroendocrinology 2005;81:174–182
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 73, Pages: 9
                Original Paper


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