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      Assessment of the Protective Effect of Lepidium sativum against Aluminum-Induced Liver and Kidney Effects in Albino Rat

      BioMed Research International

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          Background and Objectives

          Environmental pollution with the different Aluminum (Al) containing compounds has been increased. Liver and kidney are two vital organs targeted by Al accumulation. The aim of this study was to assess the possible protective and curative effects of Lepidium sativum Linn (LS) against Al-induced impairment of liver and kidney in albino rat and to explore the mechanism behind this effect.

          Materials and Methods

          This experimental animal-based study included fifty albino rats divided into five groups, the control, LS-treated (20 mg/kg), AlCl 3-treated (10 mg/kg), AlCl 3 then LS, and AlCl 3 plus LS-treated, simultaneously for 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, hepatic and renal functions as well as the biomarkers of antioxidants activities were assessed in the serum. Both liver and kidney were dissected out and histopathologically examined.


          This study showed that administration of AlCl 3 caused a significant (p<0.05) reduction in rats body weight. It significantly increased serum AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin, urea, and creatinine levels and decreased total protein and albumin. AlCl 3 significantly reduced enzymatic (catalase), nonenzymatic (reduced glutathione), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in the serum. Histopathologically, it induced necrosis and degeneration of hepatocytes, glomeruli, and renal tubules. Administration of LS after or along with AlCl 3 significantly restored the serum biomarkers of liver and kidney functions to their near-normal levels and had the ability to overcome Al-induced oxidative stress and preserved, to some extent, the normal hepatic and renal structure. The coadministration of LS had a superior effect in alleviating Al-induced changes.


          Exposure to AlCl 3 induced a set of functional and structural changes in the liver and kidney of rats evident through both biochemical and histopathological assessment. The antioxidant activity of LS seeds mediated a protective and curative effect of LS against such changes. Further study through a rigorous clinical trial to prove LS activity on human is recommended.

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          Is aluminum exposure a risk factor for neurological disorders?

          Aluminum (Al) is widely found in the nature. Although the relation between Al and neurodegenerative diseases is still controversial, Al is related with many brain diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Al exposure occurs mainly through environment, occupational, and dietary factors for humans. Al exposure with diet can be through foods, food additives, water, and contamination of Al equipment/utensils. The aim of this review is to summarize various hypotheses, which link Al and neurodegeneration, and to determine the roles of Al exposure through different sources including diet, environment, and occupation. Future studies should be done in vulnerable subgroups of population including children, patients receiving antacid or Al-containing pharmeteucials on a daily basis, patients with reduced renal function, and patients on parenteral nutrition regimens that are likely to be affected by possible adverse health effects of Al. In addition, gender, age, and Al interactions need to be determined. One of the most important challanges in future epidemiological studies is to determine which variables should be controlled. In addition, experimental studies should be more focused and translational. In this context, exposure dose, dose–response effects, and time lapse between exposures and cognitive assessments are very important.
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            An ultramicromethod for the determination of conjugated and total bilirubin in serum or plasma

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              Revised Assay for Serum Phenyl Phosphatase Activity Using 4- Amino - Antipyrine


                Author and article information

                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BioMed Research International
                18 July 2019
                : 2019
                : 4516730
                Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Kazim Husain

                Author information
                Copyright © 2019 Maha Jameal Balgoon.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 26 January 2019
                : 25 May 2019
                : 8 July 2019
                Funded by: King Abdulaziz University
                Award ID: D-195-363-1439
                Research Article


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