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      SF-36 total score as a single measure of health-related quality of life: Scoping review

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          Abstract

          According to the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire developers, a global measure of health-related quality of life such as the “SF-36 Total/Global/Overall Score” cannot be generated from the questionnaire. However, studies keep on reporting such measure. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency and to describe some characteristics of articles reporting the SF-36 Total/Global/Overall Score in the scientific literature. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses method was adapted to a scoping review. We performed searches in PubMed, Web of Science, SCOPUS, BVS, and Cochrane Library databases for articles using such scores. We found 172 articles published between 1997 and 2015; 110 (64.0%) of them were published from 2010 onwards; 30.0% appeared in journals with Impact Factor 3.00 or greater. Overall, 129 (75.0%) out of the 172 studies did not specify the method for calculating the “SF-36 Total Score”; 13 studies did not specify their methods but referred to the SF-36 developers’ studies or others; and 30 articles used different strategies for calculating such score, the most frequent being arithmetic averaging of the eight SF-36 domains scores. We concluded that the “SF-36 Total/Global/Overall Score” has been increasingly reported in the scientific literature. Researchers should be aware of this procedure and of its possible impacts upon human health.

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          Most cited references143

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          The estimation of a preference-based measure of health from the SF-36.

          This paper reports on the findings of a study to derive a preference-based measure of health from the SF-36 for use in economic evaluation. The SF-36 was revised into a six-dimensional health state classification called the SF-6D. A sample of 249 states defined by the SF-6D have been valued by a representative sample of 611 members of the UK general population, using standard gamble. Models are estimated for predicting health state valuations for all 18,000 states defined by the SF-6D. The econometric modelling had to cope with the hierarchical nature of the data and its skewed distribution. The recommended models have produced significant coefficients for levels of the SF-6D, which are robust across model specification. However, there are concerns with some inconsistent estimates and over prediction of the value of the poorest health states. These problems must be weighed against the rich descriptive ability of the SF-6D, and the potential application of these models to existing and future SF-36 data set.
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            Chinese SF-36 Health Survey: translation, cultural adaptation, validation, and normalisation.

            To develop a self administered Chinese (mainland) version of the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) for use in health related quality of life measurements in China. A three stage protocol was followed including translation, tests of scaling construction and scoring assumptions, validation, and normalisation. 1000 households in 18 communities of Hangzhou. 1688 respondents recruited by multi-stage mixed sampling. The assumption of equal intervals was violated for the vitality and mental health scales. The recoded item values were used to calculate scale scores. The clustering and ordering of item means was the same as that of the source and other two Chinese versions. The items in each scale had similar standard deviations except those in the physical functioning, boduily pain, social functioning scales. The item hypothesised scale correlations were identical for all except the social functioning and vitality scales. Convergent validity and discriminant validity were satisfactory for all except the social functioning scale. Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranged from 0.72 to 0.88 except 0.39 for the social functioning scale and 0.66 for the vitality scale. Two weeks test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from 0.66 to 0.94. Factor analysis identified two principal components explaining 56.3% of the total variance. The Chinese SF-36 could distinguish known groups. This study suggested that the Chinese (mainland) version of the SF-36 functioned in the general population of Hangzhou, China quite similarly to the original American population tested. Caution is recommended in the interpretation of the social functioning and vitality scales pending further studies.
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              The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC): a review of its utility and measurement properties.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                SAGE Open Med
                SAGE Open Med
                SMO
                spsmo
                SAGE Open Medicine
                SAGE Publications (Sage UK: London, England )
                2050-3121
                04 October 2016
                2016
                : 4
                : 2050312116671725
                Affiliations
                [1-2050312116671725]Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil
                Author notes
                [*]Liliane Lins, Federal University of Bahia, Largo do Terreiro de Jesus, s/n. Centro Histórico, 40026-010 Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Email: liliane.lins@ 123456ufba.br
                Article
                10.1177_2050312116671725
                10.1177/2050312116671725
                5052926
                27757230
                f2131f1d-fe8b-4780-8f0b-6c267e061694
                © The Author(s) 2016

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 License ( http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access page( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

                History
                : 21 March 2016
                : 10 August 2016
                Categories
                Systematic Review
                Custom metadata
                January-December 2016

                epidemiology/public health,bias (epidemiology),medical ethics,health status indicators,quality of life,questionnaires

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