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      Clinical and Genetic Features of Chinese X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 1 Disease


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          X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 (CMT1X) disease is one of the most common forms of inherited neuropathy caused by mutations in the gap junction beta-1 protein ( GJB1) gene (also known as connexin 32). This study presented the clinical and genetic features of a series of Chinese patients with GJB1 gene mutations.


          A total of 22 patients from unrelated families, who were referred to Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital from January 2005 to January 2016, were identified with GJB1 mutations. Their clinical records and laboratory findings were retrospectively collected and reviewed. Mutations in the GJB1 gene were analyzed by targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS). Nucleotide alternations were confirmed with Sanger sequencing.


          The CMT1X patients predominantly showed distal muscle weakness of lower limbs with mild sensory disturbance. The mean age of onset was 15.6 ± 8.7 years (ranging from 1 year to 42 years). The sudden onset of cerebral symptoms appeared in four patients (18.2%); two were initial symptoms. One case had constant central nervous system (CNS) signs. There were 19 different heterozygous mutations, including 15 known mutations and four novel mutations (c.115G>T, c.380T>A, c.263C>A, and c.818_819insGGGCT). Among the 22 Chinese patients with CMT1X, the frequency of the GJB1 mutation was 4.5% in transmembrane domain 1 (TM1), 4.5% in TM2, 22.7% in TM3, 9.1% in TM4, 4.5% in extracellular 1 (EC1), 27.3% in EC2, 9.1% in intracellular loop, 13.6% in the N-terminal domain, and 4.5% in the C-terminal domain. CMT1X with CNS impairment appeared in five (22.7%) of these patients.


          This study indicated that CNS impairment was not rare in Chinese CMT1X patients. Mutations in the EC2 domain of the GJB1 gene were hotspot in Chinese CMT1X patients.

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          Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease subtypes and genetic testing strategies.

          Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) affects 1 in 2,500 people and is caused by mutations in more than 30 genes. Identifying the genetic cause of CMT is often necessary for family planning, natural history studies, and for entry into clinical trials. However genetic testing can be both expensive and confusing to patients and physicians. We analyzed data from 1,024 of our patients to determine the percentage and features of each CMT subtype within this clinic population. We identified distinguishing clinical and physiological features of the subtypes that could be used to direct genetic testing for patients with CMT. Of 1,024 patients evaluated, 787 received CMT diagnoses. A total of 527 patients with CMT (67%) received a genetic subtype, while 260 did not have a mutation identified. The most common CMT subtypes were CMT1A, CMT1X, hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), CMT1B, and CMT2A. All other subtypes accounted for less than 1% each. Eleven patients had >1 genetically identified subtype of CMT. Patients with genetically identified CMT were separable into specific groups based on age of onset and the degree of slowing of motor nerve conduction velocities. Combining features of the phenotypic and physiology groups allowed us to identify patients who were highly likely to have specific subtypes of CMT. Based on these results, we propose a strategy of focused genetic testing for CMT, illustrated in a series of flow diagrams created as testing guides. Copyright © 2010 American Neurological Association.
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            CMT subtypes and disease burden in patients enrolled in the Inherited Neuropathies Consortium natural history study: a cross-sectional analysis

            Background The international Inherited Neuropathy Consortium (INC) was created with the goal of obtaining much needed natural history data for patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. We analysed clinical and genetic data from patients in the INC to determine the distribution of CMT subtypes and the clinical impairment associated with them. Methods We analysed data from 1652 patients evaluated at 13 INC centres. The distribution of CMT subtypes and pathogenic genetic mutations were determined. The disease burden of all the mutations was assessed by the CMT Neuropathy Score (CMTNS) and CMT Examination Score (CMTES). Results 997 of the 1652 patients (60.4%) received a genetic diagnosis. The most common CMT subtypes were CMT1A/PMP22 duplication, CMT1X/GJB1 mutation, CMT2A/MFN2 mutation, CMT1B/MPZ mutation, and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy/PMP22 deletion. These five subtypes of CMT accounted for 89.2% of all genetically confirmed mutations. Mean CMTNS for some but not all subtypes were similar to those previously reported. Conclusions Our findings confirm that large numbers of patients with a representative variety of CMT subtypes have been enrolled and that the frequency of achieving a molecular diagnosis and distribution of the CMT subtypes reflects those previously reported. Measures of severity are similar, though not identical, to results from smaller series. This study confirms that it is possible to assess patients in a uniform way between international centres, which is critical for the planned natural history study and future clinical trials. These data will provide a representative baseline for longitudinal studies of CMT. Clinical trial registration ID number NCT01193075.
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              The CNS phenotype of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: more than a peripheral problem.


                Author and article information

                Chin Med J (Engl)
                Chin. Med. J
                Chinese Medical Journal
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                05 May 2017
                : 130
                : 9
                : 1049-1054
                [1]Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034, China
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Prof. Yun Yuan, Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, 8 Xishiku Street, Xicheng District, Beijing 100034, China E-Mail: yuanyun2002@ 123456126.com
                Copyright: © 2017 Chinese Medical Journal

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                : 15 November 2016
                Original Article

                connexin 32,gap junction beta-1 protein,neuropathy,x-linked charcot-marie-tooth type 1


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