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      Antiviral activity of chitosan nanoparticles for controlling plant-infecting viruses


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          Chitosan nanoparticles (ChiNPs) are a potentially effective means for controlling numerous plant diseases. This study firstly describes the antiviral capabilities of ChiNPs to control plant viral diseases compared to its bulk form. Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) was used as a model plant virus affecting faba bean plants and many other legumes. The antiviral effectiveness of ChiNPs and chitosan were evaluated as a curative application method, using six dosage rates (50, 100, 200, 250, 300 and 400 mg/L). Results indicated that ChiNPs curatively applied 48 h post virus inoculation entirely inhibit the disease infectivity and viral accumulation content at 300 mg/L and 400 mg/L. The virus titre was greatly alleviated within the plant tissues by 7.71% up to100% depending on ChiNP dosage rates. However, chitosan used in its bulk-based material form revealed a relatively low to an intermediate reduction in virus infectivity by 6.67% up to 48.86%. Interestingly, ChiNPs affect the virus particle's integrity by producing defective and incomplete BYMV viral particles, defeating their replication and accumulation content within the plant tissues. Simultaneously, ChiNP applications were appreciably shown to promote the pathogenesis-related (PR-1) gene and other defence-related factors. The mRNA of the PR-1 gene was markedly accumulated in treated plants, reaching its maximum at 400 mg/L with 16.22-fold relative expression change over the untreated control. Further, the total phenol dynamic curve was remarkably promoted for 30 days in response to ChiNP application, as compared to the untreated control. Our results provide the first report that chitosan-based nanomaterials have a superior effect in controlling plant viruses as an antiviral curing agent, suggesting that they may feasibly be involved in viral disease management strategies under field conditions without serious health concerns and environmental costs. SIGNIFICANCE: • Our findings show that chitosan nanoparticles have a powerful curing antiviral activity against BYMV disease. These findings open the door for the use of eco-friendly nano-based tools in controlling numerous plant viruses. The use of eco-friendly nano-based materials could result in a successful integrative control strategy for plant viruses under field conditions, negating the need for the conventional measure used to control most of the insect-transmitted plant viruses, that is insecticide application against vector insects.

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          Most cited references51

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          A new mathematical model for relative quantification in real-time RT-PCR.

          M. Pfaffl (2001)
          Use of the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify cDNA products reverse transcribed from mRNA is on the way to becoming a routine tool in molecular biology to study low abundance gene expression. Real-time PCR is easy to perform, provides the necessary accuracy and produces reliable as well as rapid quantification results. But accurate quantification of nucleic acids requires a reproducible methodology and an adequate mathematical model for data analysis. This study enters into the particular topics of the relative quantification in real-time RT-PCR of a target gene transcript in comparison to a reference gene transcript. Therefore, a new mathematical model is presented. The relative expression ratio is calculated only from the real-time PCR efficiencies and the crossing point deviation of an unknown sample versus a control. This model needs no calibration curve. Control levels were included in the model to standardise each reaction run with respect to RNA integrity, sample loading and inter-PCR variations. High accuracy and reproducibility (<2.5% variation) were reached in LightCycler PCR using the established mathematical model.
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            Catalase, Peroxidase, and Polyphenoloxidase Activities during Rice Leaf Senescence.

            The activities of catalase, peroxidase, and polyphenoloxidase were studied in attached and detached rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Ratna) leaves. Catalase activity decreased while peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities increased during senescence of both attached and detached rice leaves. Kinetic (5 mum) and benzimidazole (1 mm), which are known to delay the senescence of detached rice leaves, retarded the decrease of catalase activity during detached leaf senescence. On the other hand, these chemicals accelerated the increase of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities over the water control. Total phenolics accumulated in detached and darkened rice leaves, but in attached leaf senescence in light no accumulation of phenolics was observed.
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              Is Open Access

              Nanotechnology in Sustainable Agriculture: Recent Developments, Challenges, and Perspectives

              Nanotechnology monitors a leading agricultural controlling process, especially by its miniature dimension. Additionally, many potential benefits such as enhancement of food quality and safety, reduction of agricultural inputs, enrichment of absorbing nanoscale nutrients from the soil, etc. allow the application of nanotechnology to be resonant encumbrance. Agriculture, food, and natural resources are a part of those challenges like sustainability, susceptibility, human health, and healthy life. The ambition of nanomaterials in agriculture is to reduce the amount of spread chemicals, minimize nutrient losses in fertilization and increased yield through pest and nutrient management. Nanotechnology has the prospective to improve the agriculture and food industry with novel nanotools for the controlling of rapid disease diagnostic, enhancing the capacity of plants to absorb nutrients among others. The significant interests of using nanotechnology in agriculture includes specific applications like nanofertilizers and nanopesticides to trail products and nutrients levels to increase the productivity without decontamination of soils, waters, and protection against several insect pest and microbial diseases. Nanotechnology may act as sensors for monitoring soil quality of agricultural field and thus it maintain the health of agricultural plants. This review covers the current challenges of sustainability, food security and climate change that are exploring by the researchers in the area of nanotechnology in the improvement of agriculture.

                Author and article information

                South African Journal of Science
                S. Afr. j. sci.
                Academy of Science of South Africa (Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa )
                February 2022
                : 118
                : 1-2
                : 1-9
                [02] Zagazig orgnameZagazig University orgdiv1Plant Pathology Department Egypt
                [01] Giza orgnameAgricultural Research Center orgdiv1Plant Pathology Research Institute orgdiv2Virus and Phytoplasma Research Department Egypt
                S0038-23532022000100015 S0038-2353(22)11800100015

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 52, Pages: 9

                SciELO South Africa

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                Research Articles

                Bean yelbw mosaic virus (BYMV),chitosan nanoparticles,PR-1 gene regulation,faba bean,antivirus


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